Howellia aquatilis - Gray
Water Howellia
Other Common Names: water howellia
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Howellia aquatilis Gray (TSN 34580)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.136199
Element Code: PDCAM0A010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Campanulales Campanulaceae Howellia
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Howellia aquatilis
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Feb2004
Global Status Last Changed: 10Feb2004
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Historically, this species occurred over a large area of the Pacific Northwest, but extant populations are mostly clustered in 2 main population centers, one in eastern Washington and one in northwestern Montana. The species has also been found recently at several sites in Mendocino County, California. Extirpated in Oregon. Genetic variability is low throughout its range; the species may represent a single genotype that is narrowly adapted to specific habitat conditions. Populations vary widely in size from year to year and very wet or very dry seasons can have a detrimental effect on abundance. The large fluctuations in annual numbers and low genetic variability indicates that isolated populations may be vulnerable to extirpation. Populations near the larger "population centers" may be inherently more resilient.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (S2), Idaho (S1), Montana (S3), Oregon (S1), Washington (S2S3)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (14Jul1994)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R6 - Rocky Mountain

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Howellia aquatilis is a Pacific Northwest endemic known from northern California (Mendocino Co.) , western Oregon (Benton Co.), Washington (Spokane, Pierce and Thurston Co.), northern Idaho (Latah Co.), and western Montana (Swan Valley) (Mincemoyer 2005).

Population Size Comments: Many Montana EOs are large (several thousand plants).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Aquatic habitats are sensitive to a number of disturbances; sites in Montana are threatened by logging in many areas. Other factors include commercial and residential development, grazing, and encroachment of welands by an invasive grass (Endangered Species Technical Bulletin, Vol. XVIII, no. 2, 1993). Grazing being investigated as a threat.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Unknown.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Howellia aquatilis is a Pacific Northwest endemic known from northern California (Mendocino Co.) , western Oregon (Benton Co.), Washington (Spokane, Pierce and Thurston Co.), northern Idaho (Latah Co.), and western Montana (Swan Valley) (Mincemoyer 2005).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, ID, MT, OR, WA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Mendocino (06045)
ID Latah (16057)
MT Lake (30047), Missoula (30063)
OR Benton (41003), Clackamas (41005), Columbia (41009)*, Marion (41047)*, Multnomah (41051)*, Polk (41053)*
WA Clark (53011), Pierce (53053), Spokane (53063), Thurston (53067)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Swan (17010211)+, Upper Spokane (17010305)+, Hangman (17010306)+, Lower Spokane (17010307)+, Palouse (17060108)+, Rock (17060109)+, Lower Columbia-Clatskanie (17080003)+*, Upper Willamette (17090003)+, Middle Willamette (17090007)+, Molalla-Pudding (17090009)+*, Lower Willamette (17090012)+, Upper Chehalis (17100103)+, Nisqually (17110015)+, Puget Sound (17110019)+
18 Middle Fork Eel (18010104)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: An aquatic annual that grows submerged, rooted in bottom sediments of ponds and sloughs. Leaves are very narrow and about 1-5 cm long. 2 types of flowers are produced - small, inconspicuous flowers beneath the water's surface and larger, white, emergent flowers that appear in July.
General Description: Water Howellia is a glabrous, much-branched, annual, aquatic herb with fragile, submerged and floating stems that are up to 100 cm tall. The simple, alternate or occasionally opposite or whorled stem leaves are narrowly linear, 1-5 cm long, and entire-margined. Beneath the surface of the water, small flowers that produce seeds without opening are solitary in the leaf axils. Once the stems reach the surface, small, white flowers are borne in a narrow, terminal, leafy-bracted inflorescence. The white corolla is 2-3 mm long. Flowering occurs on the surface of the water. The fruit, which forms below the attachment of the petals, is a capsule that is 1-2 cm long containing elongate seeds that are up to 2-4 mm long.
Technical Description: Stem very flaccid and somewhat fistulose, sparingly branched, and up to 7 dm long; leaves narrowly linear-subulate, entire or with a few slender teeth, 2-5 cm long; earlier flowers cleistogamous and in the axils of ordinary, the later on special branches with shorter and more or less verticillate leaves; corollas, when present, whitish or pale lavender, 3 mm long, as long as the linear, obtuse, unequal sepals; capsule clavate, 6-8 mm long. (Peck 1961)
Diagnostic Characteristics: Vegetatively, this species resembles a small-leaved pondweed (POTAMOGETON) or a water starwort (CALLITRICHE), but the flowers in these two groups lack petals, and they have much smaller seeds. During spring and early summer, it also resembles a water-parsnip (SIUM SUAVE); however, the leaves on this plant are in a basal rosette.
Duration: ANNUAL
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): TEMPORARY POOL
Habitat Comments: Small vernal wetlands with firmly consolidated bottoms. These include shallow, low-elevation glacial pothole ponds and former river oxbows with margins of deciduous trees and shrubs. These habitats are inundated by spring rains and snowmelt runoff and typically dry out by the end of the growing season. The plants tend to root in the shallow water at the edges of deeper ponds that are (at lower elevations) surrounded by deciduous trees.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 16Jul1986
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Shelly, S., & P. Lesica (rev. Heidel/Maybury 5/96)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 18Aug1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): MZB

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Frissell, C. A., J. T. Gangemi, and J. A. Stanford. 1995. Identifying priority areas for protection and restoration of aquatic biodiversity: A case study in the Swan River basin, Montana, USA. Open File Report No. 136-95. Flathead Lake Biological Station, The University of Montana, Polson. 51 pp.

  • Gamon, J. 1992. Report on the status in Washington of Howellia aquatilis Gray. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Olympia. 46 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Lesica, P. 1990a. Habitat requirements, germination behavior and seed bank dynamics of Howellia aquatilis in the Swan Valley, Montana. Unpublished report to the Flathead National Forest. Conservation Biology Research, Helena, Montana. 44 pp. plus appendix.

  • Lesica, P. 1991b. Monitoring Howellia aquatilis and Phalaris arundinacea at Swan River Oxbow Preserve. Progress report. The Nature Conservancy, Helena, Montana. 7 pp.

  • Lesica, P. 1992a. Autecology of the endangered plant Howellia aquatilis; implications for management and reserve design. Ecological Applications 2: 411-421.

  • Lesica, P. 1994b. Monitoring Howellia aquatilis at Swan River Oxbow Preserve: 1993 progress report. Unpublished report prepared for the Montana Nature Conservancy, Helena. 5 pp.

  • Lesica, P., R. F. Leary and F. W. Allendorf. 1987. Lack of genetic diversity within and among populations of the rare plant HOWELLIA AQUATILIS. Unpublished report, submitted to The Nature Conservancy, Helena, Montana. 15 pp.

  • Lesica, P., R.F. Leary, F.W. Allendorf, and D.E. Bilderback. 1988. Lack of genetic diversity within and among populations of an endangered plant, Howellia aquatilis. Conservation Biology 2: 275-282.

  • McCune, B. 1982. Noteworthy collections - Montana: HOWELLIA AQUATILIS. Madrono 29:123-124.

  • Rice, D.J. 1990. An application of restoration ecology to the management of an endangered plant, Howellia aquatilis [M.S. thesis]. Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA. 85 pp.

  • Roe, L. S. and J. S. Shelly. 1992. Update to the status review of HOWELLIA AQUATILIS: field surveys, monitoring studies, and transplant experiments. Unpublished report to the Flathead National Forest. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 51 pp.

  • Schassberger, L. A. and J. S. Shelly. 1991. Update to the status review of HOWELLIA AQUATILIS: field surveys, monitoring studies, and transplant experiments. Prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Flathead National Forest. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 57 pp.

  • Shelly, J. S. 1988. Distribution and status of HOWELLIA AQUATILIS A. Gray (Campanulaceae) in Lake and Missoula Counties, Montana. Proc. Mont. Acad. Sci. 48:12. (Abstract)

  • Shelly, J. S. 1988c. Status review of Howellia aquatilis. U.S. Forest Service, Region 1, Flathead National Forest. Unpublished report. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 120 pp.

  • Shelly, J. S. 1988d. Report on the conservation status of Howellia aquatilis, a candidate threatened species. Unpublished report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 166 pp.

  • Shelly, J. S. 1989. Addendum to the status review of HOWELLIA AQUATILIS, USDA Forest Service, Region 1, Flathead National Forest, Montana. Unpublished report to the U.S. Forest Service, Region 1. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 17 pp.

  • Shelly, J. S. 1994. Conservation strategy, HOWELLIA AQUATILIS, Flathead National Forest. Unpublished report. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. 26 pp.

  • Shelly, J. S. and L. A. Schassberger. 1990. Update to the status review of HOWELLIA AQUATILIS: field surveys, monitoring studies, and transplant experiments, 1989. Unpublished report to the Flathead National Forest, Kalispell, MT. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 50 pp.

  • Shelly, J.S., and R. Moseley. 1988. Report on the conservation status of Howellia aquatilis, a candidate threatened species. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1994. The plant, water howellia (Howellia aquatilis), determined to be a threatened species. Federal Register 59(134): 35860-35864.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS. 1994. Endangered and Threatened wildlife and plants; the plant, Water howellia (HOWELLIA AQUATILIS), determined to be a Threatened species. 50 CFR Part 17. Federal Register 59(134):35860-35864.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.