Histrionicus histrionicus - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Harlequin Duck
Other English Common Names: harlequin duck
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Histrionicus histrionicus (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 175149)
French Common Names: arlequin plongeur
Spanish Common Names: Pato Arlequín
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104856
Element Code: ABNJB15010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Waterfowl
Image 10708

© Dick Cannings

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae Histrionicus
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Histrionicus histrionicus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 08Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 11Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Although still globally widespread, the Atlantic population may be reaching critically low levels and the Pacific population has experienced substantial declines. Harlequins may exhibit high breeding and wintering site fidelity and small local breeding populations, and are thus subject to local extirpations. Declining overall populations may provide little chance of recolonization.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4B,N4N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4B,N3N,N4M (07Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (S4B,S4N), California (S1), Colorado (SHB), Idaho (S1B), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (S1N), Maine (S2S3N), Maryland (S1N), Massachusetts (S2N), Minnesota (SNRN), Montana (S2B), New Jersey (SNA), New York (S1N), North Carolina (SNA), Oregon (S2B,S3N), Rhode Island (S1N), Virginia (SNA), Washington (S2B,S3N), Wyoming (S1B)
Canada Alberta (S3B), British Columbia (S4B,S3N), Labrador (S3B,SUM), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNR), Newfoundland Island (S3B,S2N,SUM), Northwest Territories (S1B), Nova Scotia (SNRN), Nunavut (S3B,S3M), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (S3), Yukon Territory (S3B)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):PS:SC
Comments on COSEWIC: The Eastern population is designated Special Concern.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Holarctic. Nesting occurs in Eurasia and two disjunct regions in North America. Pacific population breeds from western Alaska (see Johnson and Herter 1989 for details), northern Yukon, northern British Columbia, and southern Alberta south to Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, and east of the Continental Divide in Montana (perhaps historically in California and Colorado). The Atlantic population breeds from Baffin Island (at least formerly), Greenland, and Iceland through central and eastern Quebec, eastern Labrador, northern Newfoundland (perhaps historically much more widely in the North Atlantic region). This duck occurs in summer in Mackenzie Valley and near Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories. In the Palearctic, harlequin ducks breed in Iceland and Greenland, and from the Lena River in Siberia east to Kamchatka and south to northern Mongolia and the Kurile Islands (American Ornithologists Union 1983). During the nonbreeding season, harlequin ducks occur in Eurasia; Aleutian and Pribilof islands south to central California; southern Labrador, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, south to Maryland (but mostly north of Cape Cod); accidental in Hawaii; they are much more abundant in the Aleutians than farther south in southwestern Canada and U.S. Pacific Northwest.

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of breeding and nonbreeding occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Recent population estimates are: Pacific population, one million individuals; Greenland population, 5,000 pairs; Iceland population, 3,000-5,000 pairs; and eastern North America population, 1,500-2,000 individuals (USFWS 1998). Estimate for the total U.S and Canada population is 165,000; a guesstimate for Russia is 50,000-100,000 (Goudie et al. 1994).

The historical population size of this species in eastern North America is debable, but it was probably never large (>10,000), and the current wintering population is probably no greater than 1,500 birds (Robertson and Goudie 1999).

Population size of the Pacific wintering population is known for certain selected areas: Washington, 1,500 (Schirato and Sharpe 1992); British Columbia, tens of thousands (Campbell et al. 1990); and the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, 150,000 (Byrd et al. 1992).

Estimated number of breeding pairs is 274 in Washington, 50 in Oregon, 50 in Idaho, 110 in Montana, and 40 in Wyoming; the species is much more numerous than this in Alaska and British Columbia (Harlequin Duck Working Group 1993). See Harlequin Duck Working Group (1993) for status summaries for individual states and provinces.

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by habitat degradation in breeding and wintering areas including: destruction of riparian areas; destruction of watershed stability and stream flow regimes by mining, roads, and timber harvest; impoundments and diversions on breeding streams; destruction of food base via pesticides; shoreline development and activities on wintering and breeding areas; disturbance by recreational river users and hikers in breeding areas (Spahr et al. 1991). Mortality factors include: over-harvesting of remnant populations; oil and other contamination in coastal areas (Harlequin Duck Working Group 1993). Oil may chronically recontaminate birds and eliminate reproduction (Patten 1993).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Both breeding and wintering distribution and abundance appear to be declining in western North America (Harlequin Duck Working Group 1993, Goudie et al. 1994). The Pacific North American populations appear to be stable in some areas (ID, MT, WY) and declining in others (Alberta, Aleutian Islands) (Harlequin Duck Working Group 1993). Recent analyses suggest declines in Maine stopped by 1992, with gradual increase in late 1990s (USFWS 1998).

Long-term Trend: Decline of <50% to Relatively Stable
Long-term Trend Comments: Atlantic population in North America has undergone a significant decline this century and continues to decline (Goudie 1989, 1991, Harlequin Duck Working Group 1993). Declined in most of eastern North America from the late 1970s to early 1990s (Harlequin Duck Working Group 1993). Very small numbers and declining in eastern Canada (Goudie, 1990 COSEWIC report).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: The Harlequin Duck Working Group (1993) list inventory needs. For the Atlantic population: additional wintering inventory is needed on the outer coast of Atlantic Canada and the northeastern U.S.; additional breeding inventory is needed throughout eastern Canada, including Baffin Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Newfoundland. For the Pacific population: additional wintering inventory is needed in California, Oregon, British Columbia, and Alaska. Breeding inventories are needed in the Cascade and Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington, northeastern Washington, central and southeastern Idaho, in the Bitterroot and Upper Yellowstone drainages in Montana, and in northwestern Wyoming outside the National Parks. Breeding surveys are also needed throughout British Columbia, western Alberta, Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Alaska.

Protection Needs: A status review is needed to determine if federal protection of the Atlantic population in the United States is warranted under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Holarctic. Nesting occurs in Eurasia and two disjunct regions in North America. Pacific population breeds from western Alaska (see Johnson and Herter 1989 for details), northern Yukon, northern British Columbia, and southern Alberta south to Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, and east of the Continental Divide in Montana (perhaps historically in California and Colorado). The Atlantic population breeds from Baffin Island (at least formerly), Greenland, and Iceland through central and eastern Quebec, eastern Labrador, northern Newfoundland (perhaps historically much more widely in the North Atlantic region). This duck occurs in summer in Mackenzie Valley and near Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories. In the Palearctic, harlequin ducks breed in Iceland and Greenland, and from the Lena River in Siberia east to Kamchatka and south to northern Mongolia and the Kurile Islands (American Ornithologists Union 1983). During the nonbreeding season, harlequin ducks occur in Eurasia; Aleutian and Pribilof islands south to central California; southern Labrador, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, south to Maryland (but mostly north of Cape Cod); accidental in Hawaii; they are much more abundant in the Aleutians than farther south in southwestern Canada and U.S. Pacific Northwest.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CA, CO, ID, IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MN, MT, NC, NJ, NY, OR, RI, VA, WA, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, QC, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Placer (06061)
ID Benewah (16009), Bingham (16011), Boise (16015), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Canyon (16027)*, Clearwater (16035), Elmore (16039), Idaho (16049), Kootenai (16055), Latah (16057)*, Lemhi (16059), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073)*, Shoshone (16079), Teton (16081), Valley (16085)
MT Carbon (30009), Flathead (30029), Glacier (30035), Granite (30039), Lewis and Clark (30049), Lincoln (30053), Mineral (30061), Missoula (30063), Park (30067), Pondera (30073), Powell (30077), Sanders (30089), Sweet Grass (30097), Teton (30099)
OR Clackamas (41005), Douglas (41019), Hood River (41027), Klamath (41035)*, Lane (41039), Linn (41043), Marion (41047), Multnomah (41051)*, Union (41061), Wallowa (41063)*, Wasco (41065)
WA Asotin (53003), Chelan (53007), Clallam (53009), Cowlitz (53015), Ferry (53019), Grays Harbor (53027), Island (53029), Jefferson (53031), King (53033), Kitsap (53035), Kittitas (53037), Lewis (53041), Mason (53045), Okanogan (53047), Pend Oreille (53051), Pierce (53053), Skagit (53057), Skamania (53059), Snohomish (53061), Spokane (53063), Thurston (53067), Whatcom (53073), Yakima (53077)
WY Big Horn (56003), Carbon (56007), Fremont (56013), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021), Lincoln (56023), Park (56029), Sheridan (56033), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
09 St. Marys (09040001)+, Belly (09040002)+
10 Sun (10030104)+, Two Medicine (10030201)+, Cut Bank (10030202)+*, Teton (10030205)+, Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+, Upper Yellowstone (10070002)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, South Fork Shoshone (10080013)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Clear (10090206)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Crow (10190009)+
14 New Fork (14040102)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+
17 Upper Kootenai (17010101)+, Yaak (17010103)+, Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Moyie (17010105)+, Flint-Rock (17010202)+, Blackfoot (17010203)+, Middle Clark Fork (17010204)+, North Fork Flathead (17010206)+, Middle Fork Flathead (17010207)+, Flathead Lake (17010208)+, South Fork Flathead (17010209)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Priest (17010215)+, Pend Oreille (17010216)+, Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, St. Joe (17010304)+, Upper Spokane (17010305)+, Little Spokane (17010308)+, Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (17020001)+, Chief Joseph (17020005)+, Methow (17020008)+, Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010)+, Wenatchee (17020011)+, Upper Crab (17020013)+, Upper Yakima (17030001)+, Naches (17030002)+, Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Salt (17040105)+, Teton (17040204)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Blackfoot (17040207)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+*, North and Middle Forks Boise (17050111)+, Boise-Mores (17050112)+, South Fork Boise (17050113)+, Brownlee Reservoir (17050201)+, Hells Canyon (17060101)+, Imnaha (17060102)+*, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Upper Grande Ronde (17060104)+, Wallowa (17060105)+*, Pahsimeroi (17060202)+, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+, Lemhi (17060204)+, Upper Middle Fork Salmon (17060205)+, Lower Middle Fork Salmon (17060206)+, Upper Selway (17060301)+, Lochsa (17060303)+, South Fork Clearwater (17060305)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307)+, Lower North Fork Clearwater (17060308)+, Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105)+, Lower Deschutes (17070306)+, Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001)+, Lewis (17080002)+, Upper Cowlitz (17080004)+, Lower Cowlitz (17080005)+, Middle Fork Willamette (17090001)+, Mckenzie (17090004)+, North Santiam (17090005)+, South Santiam (17090006)+, Molalla-Pudding (17090009)+, Clackamas (17090011)+, Hoh-Quillayute (17100101)+, Queets-Quinault (17100102)+, Upper Chehalis (17100103)+, Lower Chehalis (17100104)+, North Umpqua (17100301)+, Nooksack (17110004)+, Upper Skagit (17110005)+, Sauk (17110006)+, Stillaguamish (17110008)+, Skykomish (17110009)+, Snoqualmie (17110010)+, Snohomish (17110011)+, Duwamish (17110013)+, Puyallup (17110014)+, Nisqually (17110015)+, Skokomish (17110017)+, Hood Canal (17110018)+, Puget Sound (17110019)+, Dungeness-Elwha (17110020)+, Crescent-Hoko (17110021)+
18 Upper Klamath Lake (18010203)+*, Lost (18010204)+*, North Fork American (18020128)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small duck.
Reproduction Comments: In the intermountain western U.S., incubation begins mid-May through late June, depending on elevation and snow melt (Spahr et al. 1991). Male defends female until incubation begins, then pair bond ends. Clutch size is 5-10 (usually 6-8). Incubation reported as 27-32 days, by female. Nestlings are precocial and downy. Young are tended by female, first fly in 5-6 weeks. Brood size at fledging usually is 2-5. First breeds apparently at 2 years. Compared to other ducks, productivity is relatively low (Spahr et al. 1991) and highly variable from year to year. Long-term pair bond, renewed on the wintering grounds each year (Smith et al. 2000; Gowans et al. 1997; Robertson et al. 1999; Robertson et al. 2000).
Ecology Comments: Often seen in compact flocks during the non-breeding season. Females and paired males show strong philopatry to wintering site; juvenile males appear to have higher emigration rates, making local population differentiation unlikely (Cooke et al. 2000, Robertson et al. 2000). Males are not territorial on the wintering grounds; it appears that Harlequin Ducks have a mate-defense mating system (Robertson et al. 2000). The group migration of mothers and offspring to traditional molting or wintering grounds may contribute to genetic differentiation among populations (Regehr et al. 2001).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates northward and inland in spring (March-June). Arrives in breeding areas in the intermountain western U.S. late-April through mid-May (Spahr et al. 1991). Moves southward along coast in fall, from September into November (Terres 1980). Usually returns to wintering areas off Alaska by the end of September (Johnson and Herter 1989). In the intermountain western U.S., males depart for the west coast soon after females begin incubating; breeding areas in late summer (Spahr et al. 1991). Young accompany their mothers to coastal molting or wintering areas in the late summer (Regehr et al. 2001).
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Winters in rough coastal waters, especially along rocky shores or reefs; summering nonbreeders and immatures also occur in this habitat (Cassirer et al. 1993).

Nests along fast-moving rivers and mountain streams on rocky islands or banks. Streams are braided to reticulate with many riffles and rapids (Cassirer et al. 1993). Requires relatively undisturbed, low gradient, meandering mountain streams with dense shrubby riparian areas (greater than 50% streamside shrub cover), and woody debris for nesting and brood rearing; also needs mid-stream boulders or log jams and overhanging vegetation for cover and loafing; indicator of high water quality (Spahr et al. 1991). Sometimes nests beside mountain lakes and lake outlets.

Nests in a hollow, usually under the cover of bushes within about 30 m of water; also in rock crevice among boulders, in rock cavity in cliff face, in a tree cavity (Cassirer et al. 1993), in a puffin burrow, or similar hidden site; occasionally on open tundra (Ehrlich et al. 1992). Tends to breed in the same area in successive years.

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Diet is almost exclusively benthic aquatic invertebrates; feeds primarily on crustaceans and mollusks, also insects, and a few small fishes (Bellrose 1976); marine diet also includes roe. Dives for food in strong currents.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 42 centimeters
Weight: 687 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Management Requirements: Trails and roads should be greater than 165 ft from inhabited streams and should not be visible from the streams. Road closures may be important in some areas to reduce disturbance (Thomas et al. 1993). Logging should be avoided in riparian areas.
Monitoring Requirements: Cassirer et al. (1993) recommended the establishment of regionally consistent statistically valid monitoring programs throughout the breeding and wintering range;
Management Research Needs: Cassirer et al. (1993) recommended the following: conduct research into the effects of human disturbance, forestry practices, insect control, and river impoundments on breeding areas; investigate possibilities for mitigation and habitat restoration; and examine impacts of oil contamination, including chronic low level oil pollution in near-shore environments.
Biological Research Needs: The Harlequin Duck Working Group (1993) recommended the following: examine productivity, survival and recruitment rates; investigate food habits and feeding requirements in breeding areas (especially Atlantic population); investigate movement, migration, and dispersal patterns within and between breeding and wintering areas; examine genetic differences among breeding populations.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of breeding (including historical); and potential recurring breeding at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs, nests or females with flightless young in appropriate habitat. EOs are defined by a drainage, or portion of a drainage, where breeding is known or highly suspected.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 7 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: EOs may be separated at less than 7 kilometers over major ridge divides; minimum two kilometer separation between streams. This is based on lack of detected movements between streams over major divides.
Separation Justification: 10-km suitable habitat separation (measured along watercourses) includes both rarely used habitat (e.g., lakes, <1% gradient rivers) and apparently suitable riverine habitat that is not known to be occupied. Separation in unsuitable habitat is based on movements of up to 7 km over a low divide (Cassirer and Groves, 1994). Movements along watercourses include: means of 1.9 and 2.1 km for breeding females in Oregon (Bruner 1997); mean of 6.9 km for breeding females in Idaho (range 2-13.4, n = 8; Cassirer and Groves 1992); a 15 km commute to feeding grounds by a nesting female (Smith 1999); females with broods move up to 8 km (Smith 1998); pairs in Montana do not move more than 2 kilometers once settled (Kuchel 1977); and a 21 km movement across a reservoir (Reichel and Genter 1995). A few movements up to 31 km have occurred across mixed suitable and unsuitable habitat (Reichel and Genter 1996), but all have either occurred between years or following a substantial disturbance. Home ranges average 7-10 km of stream length (Kuchel 1977, Cassirer and Groves 1992).
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Conservative measure of stream length; based on movements of breeding females in Oregon (Bruner 1997) and pairs in Montana (Kuchel 1977).
Date: 16Oct2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migratory concentrations at fresh water sites (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location at the appropriate time of year; minimally a reliable observation of 5 birds. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is therefore preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary. Occurrences defined primarily by the presence of migratory concentrations, rather than by distinct populations.
Unsuitable habitat: upland areas.

Date: 11Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Molting area, Wintering area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of molting or wintering concentrations (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds for western populations and 5 for eastern populations. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is therefore preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance set somewhat low to create occurrences meaningful for conservation action. Of 89 females marked during late summer molt in coastal Alaska, 92% stayed within approximately 20 km of where they were marked through mid-February (Esler 1996).
Date: 12Oct2018
Author: Cannings, S., J.D. Reichel and E.F. Cassirer (1999), rev. Cannings, S. and M. Ormes (2018)
Notes: Modified minimum criteria to reflect differences in western and eastern population sizes.

Use Class: Staging
Subtype(s): Foraging concentration area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of concentrations (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location at the appropriate time of year (late winter or spring); minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds for western populations and 5 for eastern populations. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is therefore preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; occurrences determined primarily by foraging concentrations (e.g. at herring spawn sites), rather than by distinct populations.
Date: 11Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S. (2002), rev Cannings, S. and M. Ormes (2018)
Notes: Modified minimum criteria to reflect differences in western and eastern population sizes.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Mar1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Reichel, J. D., L. Master, G. Hammerson, and D. W. Mehlman.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08Mar1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G., MINOR REVISIONS BY S. CANNINGS

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. HUC10-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. Maxent-based species distribution models. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Andrews, R. R. and R. R. Righter. 1992. Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 442 pp.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des oiseaux du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 13 pages.

  • Ashley, J. 1994. 1992-93 harlequin duck monitoring and inventory in Glacier National Park, Montana. Unpublished report. Division of Research Management, Glacier Natl. Park, Montana. 57 pp.

  • Ashley, J. 1994. Progress report: harlequin duck inventory and monitoring in Glacier National Park, Montana. Unpublished report. Division of Research Management, Glacier Natl. Park, Montana. 14 pp.

  • Ashley, J. 1995. Harlequin duck surveys and tracking in Glacier National Park, Montana. Unpublished report. Division of Natural Resources, Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. 41 pp.

  • Atkinson, E.C. 1991. Distribution and status of Harlequin ducks (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) and common loons (GAVIA IMMER) on the Targhee National Forest. Unpublished report prepared by the Idaho Conservation Data Center, IDaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, Idaho.

  • Atkinson, E.C. and M.L. Atkinson. 1990. Distribution and status of harlequin ducks (HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS) on the Targhee National Forest. Unpublished report prepared by the Idaho Natural Heritage Program, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, Idaho.

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http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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