Hiodon tergisus - Lesueur, 1818
Mooneye
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hiodon tergisus Lesueur, 1818 (TSN 161906)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104743
Element Code: AFCGA01020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Hiodontiformes Hiodontidae Hiodon
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hiodon tergisus
Taxonomic Comments: One of two species in a monogeneric family. HIODON is the only extant North American member of the order Osteoglossiformes.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 09Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (22Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3S4), Arkansas (S2), Georgia (S1), Illinois (S2S3), Indiana (S4), Iowa (SNR), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S4), Michigan (S1), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S5), Nebraska (SU), New York (S2), North Carolina (S1), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S3), Pennsylvania (S4), South Dakota (SU), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S3), Vermont (SU), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Alberta (S5), Manitoba (S5), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes (except Superior), Mississippi river, and Hudson Bay basins from Quebec to Alberta, south to Louisiana; Gulf Slope drainages from Mobile Bay, Alabama, to Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but large. This species is locally common (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes (except Superior), Mississippi river, and Hudson Bay basins from Quebec to Alberta, south to Louisiana; Gulf Slope drainages from Mobile Bay, Alabama, to Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NY, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, VT, WI, WV
Canada AB, MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Bartow (13015), Floyd (13115), Gordon (13129), Murray (13213)
MI Allegan (26005)*, Delta (26041)*, Macomb (26099), Presque Isle (26141)*, St. Clair (26147)*, Wayne (26163)
MO Andrew (29003), Atchison (29005)*, Barry (29009)*, Bates (29013)*, Boone (29019), Buchanan (29021)*, Butler (29023), Callaway (29027), Cape Girardeau (29031), Carter (29035)*, Cedar (29039)*, Chariton (29041)*, Cole (29051), Cooper (29053), Crawford (29055)*, Daviess (29061)*, Dent (29065)*, Dunklin (29069)*, Franklin (29071), Gasconade (29073), Hickory (29085)*, Howard (29089), Jackson (29095), Jefferson (29099), Lewis (29111), Lincoln (29113), Livingston (29117)*, Maries (29125), Marion (29127), Mercer (29129)*, Miller (29131), Mississippi (29133)*, New Madrid (29143)*, Oregon (29149)*, Osage (29151), Pemiscot (29155), Perry (29157), Phelps (29161)*, Pike (29163)*, Polk (29167)*, Pulaski (29169), Ralls (29173)*, Ripley (29181)*, Saline (29195), Scott (29201), Shannon (29203), Shelby (29205)*, St. Charles (29183), St. Louis (29189), St. Louis (city) (29510), Taney (29213)*, Vernon (29217)*, Wayne (29223)
NC Henderson (37089)*, Madison (37115)
NY Chautauqua (36013), Erie (36029), Essex (36031), Jefferson (36045)*, St. Lawrence (36089)
OH Adams (39001), Brown (39015), Butler (39017), Clermont (39025), Defiance (39039)*, Erie (39043)*, Franklin (39049)*, Gallia (39053), Hamilton (39061), Henry (39069)*, Lawrence (39087), Lucas (39095)*, Meigs (39105), Morgan (39115), Muskingum (39119), Ottawa (39123)*, Pickaway (39129), Pike (39131)*, Ross (39141), Sandusky (39143)*, Scioto (39145), Warren (39165), Washington (39167)
PA Allegheny (42003)*, Armstrong (42005), Erie (42049)*
SD Lincoln (46083)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002)
03 Coosawattee (03150102)+, Oostanaula (03150103)+, Etowah (03150104)+, Upper Coosa (03150105)+, Middle Coosa (03150106)*, Lower Coosa (03150107), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Buttahatchee (03160103), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)*, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111)+*, Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203)*, Lower Fox (04030204), Black-Macatawa (04050002)+*, Kalamazoo (04050003)+*, Lake Michigan (04060200)*, Lake Huron (04080300)+*, St. Clair (04090001)+*, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+, Detroit (04090004)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Cattaraugus (04120102)+, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)+, Lake Erie (04120200)+, Salmon-Sandy (04140102)*, Black (04150101), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301)+*, Oswegatchie (04150302)+, Indian (04150303)+, Grass (04150304)+, Raquette (04150305)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)*, Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Lower Great Miami (05080002)+, Whitewater (05080003)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Little Miami (05090202)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+, Licking (05100101), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Lower White (05120202), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Stones (05130203), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Lower Clinch (06010207), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Apple-Plum (07060005), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Flint-Henderson (07080104), Lower Cedar (07080206), Lower Iowa (07080209), Lower Rock (07090005)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004), Lower Des Moines (07100009)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+, The Sny (07110004)+, North Fork Salt (07110005)+*, Salt (07110007)+, Cuivre (07110008)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Upper Illinois (07120005), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Salt (07130009), Lower Illinois (07130011)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Meramec (07140102)+, Big (07140104)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+*, Little River Ditches (08020204)+, Lower White (08020303), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Deer-Steele (08030209)*, Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203)*, Bayou Macon (08050002), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100)*, Tickfaw (08070203)
09 Elm-Marsh (09020107), Turtle (09020307)
10 Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Lower Platte (10200202), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)*, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)*, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+*, One Hundred and Two (10240013)+, Upper Grand (10280101)+, Thompson (10280102)+, Lower Grand (10280103)+, Harry S. Missouri (10290105)+, Sac (10290106)+, Pomme De Terre (10290107)+, Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Lower Osage (10290111)+, Upper Gasconade (10290201)+*, Big Piney (10290202)+, Lower Gasconade (10290203)+, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+, Lamine (10300103)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)+
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001)+, Bull Shoals Lake (11010003)+, Middle White (11010004), Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011)+, Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Lake Texoma (11130210), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring. Males sexually mature usually in 3 years, females often not until 5 years. In Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, females spawn between ages 3 and 6 years; spawns at water temperatures of 8-15 C; spawning peaks late April-early May in Tennessee River, May in Cumberland River (Wallus and Buchanan 1989).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates upstream for spawning in some areas (Becker 1983).
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes deep pools and backwaters of medium to large rivers and interconnecting lakes and reservoirs with clear water; often in nonflowing waters but feeds mostly in swift water. Spawning may occur upstream in large clear streams. Eggs are semibuoyant and drift downstream or into quiet water. In the Tennessee-Cumberland system, most larvae were collected from near-surface waters at night (Wallus and Buchanan 1989).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly aquatic and terrestrial insects; also crustaceans, molluscs, and small fishes.
Length: 45 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Useful data on dispersal and other movements are not available. Separation distance is arbitrary but reflects the likely low probability that occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term. Occurrences include spawning and nonspawning areas, regardless of how far apart they are.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Date: 22Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • Bouton, D. 1986. Personal communication with Karl Parker. Endangered Species Unit. Wildlife Resources Center, NY.

  • Carlson, Douglas M. 1998. Species Accounts for the rare fishes of New York. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Fish, Wildlife and Marine Resources. Bureau of Fisheries, Endangered Fish Project. 95pp.

  • Carlson, Douglas. 1998. Summary of activities relating to management of ETs Fishes (as listed in 1983) from 1995 to present. 5pp.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Fisheries Branch. 1991. Fish Species Distributions in Saskatchewan. Report 91-7. Saskatchewan Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch. Regina. 102pp.

  • General Status, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba fish species and subnational ranks proposed by DFO.

  • George, C.J. 1980. The fishes of the Adirondack Park. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Albany, NY 94 pp.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Bull. 84. 966pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Van Oosten, J. 1961. Records, ages, and growth of the mooneye, Hiodon tergisius, of the Great Lakes. Trans. American Fish. Society 90(2):170-174.

  • Wallus, R., and J. P. Buchanan. 1989. Contributions to the reproductive biology and early life ecology of mooneye in the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. American Midland Naturalist 122:204-207.

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References for Watershed Distribution Map
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  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

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  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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