Hiodon alosoides - (Rafinesque, 1819)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque, 1819) (TSN 161905)
French Common Names: laquaiche aux yeux d'or
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105194
Element Code: AFCGA01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Hiodontiformes Hiodontidae Hiodon
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hiodon alosoides
Taxonomic Comments: One of two species in a monogeneric family. Hiodon is the only extant North American member of the order Osteoglossiformes. Formerly included in the genus Amphiodon.
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 14Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 09Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (18Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SX), Arkansas (S2?), Illinois (S2S3), Indiana (S4), Iowa (SNR), Kansas (S4), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S4), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S4), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S5), Nebraska (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S1), Oklahoma (S4), Pennsylvania (SX), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S4), Texas (S3), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S2), Wyoming (S2)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S3), Manitoba (S5), Northwest Territories (S5), Nunavut (SNR), Ontario (S3), Quebec (S3), Saskatchewan (S4S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes tributaries of James Bay, Quebec and Ontario; and Arctic and Mississippi River basins from the Mackenzie River drainage, Northwest Territories, to western Pennsylvania and south to Louisiana (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but very large. This species is locally common.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes tributaries of James Bay, Quebec and Ontario; and Arctic and Mississippi River basins from the Mackenzie River drainage, Northwest Territories, to western Pennsylvania and south to Louisiana (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALextirpated, AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MN, MO, MS, MT, ND, NE, OH, OK, PAextirpated, SD, TN, TX, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Arkansas (05001), Chicot (05017)*, Crawford (05033)*, Desha (05041), Hempstead (05057), Jackson (05067), Lawrence (05075), Lee (05077)*, Lincoln (05079), Little River (05081), Miller (05091), Phillips (05107)*, Sebastian (05131)*
IA Clinton (19045), Jackson (19097)
MS Bolivar (28011), Claiborne (28021)*, Humphreys (28053), Issaquena (28055), Leflore (28083), Panola (28107), Warren (28149)*, Washington (28151)
OH Adams (39001)*, Clermont (39025)*, Franklin (39049)*, Morgan (39115)*, Pickaway (39129), Pike (39131)*, Ross (39141), Scioto (39145), Warren (39165)*, Washington (39167)*
PA Armstrong (42005)*
WI Buffalo (55011), Columbia (55021), Crawford (55023), Eau Claire (55035), Grant (55043), Iowa (55049), La Crosse (55063), Pepin (55091), Pierce (55093), Richland (55103), Sauk (55111), St. Croix (55109)*, Trempealeau (55121), Vernon (55123)
WV Hancock (54029), Mason (54053)
WY Campbell (56005), Johnson (56019), Natrona (56025)*, Sheridan (56033)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+*, Lower Monongahela (05020005), Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Beaver (05030104), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Hocking (05030204)*, Muskingum (05040004)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Paint (05060003)+*, Big Sandy (05070204), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Little Miami (05090202)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Duck (06040002), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Trempealeau (07040005)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Black (07040007), Lower Chippewa (07050005)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Kickapoo (07070006)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)*, Flint-Henderson (07080104)*, Lower Iowa (07080209), Lower Rock (07090005), Lake Red Rock (07100008)*, Lower Des Moines (07100009)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), Salt (07110007), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Upper Illinois (07120005), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Lower Illinois (07130011), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)*, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100)+, Lower St. Francis (08020203), Lower White (08020303)+, Lower Arkansas (08020401)+, Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100)+, Little Tallahatchie (08030201)+, Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205)*, Upper Yazoo (08030206)+, Big Sunflower (08030207)+, Deer-Steele (08030209)+, Upper Ouachita (08040102), Lower Red (08040301), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002)+, Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100)+, Lower Big Black (08060202)+*, Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100)*, Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100)*
09 Red Lake (09020303), Lower Red (09020311)
10 Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102), Marias (10030203), Teton (10030205), Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101), Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104), Middle Milk (10050004), Lower Milk (10050012), Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001), Poplar (10060003), Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005), Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin (10070004), Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006), Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar (10070007), Lower Bighorn (10080015), Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Lower Tongue (10090102), Upper Powder (10090202)+, Salt (10090204)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Middle Powder (10090207)+, Little Powder (10090208)+, Lower Powder (10090209), Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001), Lower Yellowstone (10100004), Upper Little Missouri (10110201), Boxelder (10110202), Beaver (10110204), Upper Lake Oahe (10130102), Lower Lake Oahe (10130105), Grand (10130303), Lower Moreau (10130306), Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101), Ponca (10150001), Keya Paha (10150006), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+*, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Wood (10200102), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Little Sioux (10230003)*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), West Nishnabotna (10240002)*, East Nishnabotna (10240003), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Little Nemaha (10240006), West Nodaway (10240009), Nodaway (10240010)*, Independence-Sugar (10240011), One Hundred and Two (10240013)*, Lower Republican (10250017), Upper Smoky Hill (10260003)*, Middle Smoky Hill (10260006)*, Lower Smoky Hill (10260008)*, Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105)*, Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Lower Osage (10290111), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Upper Black (11010007), Lower Black (11010009)+, Upper White-Village (11010013)+, Little Red (11010014), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), Kaw Lake (11060001), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Lower Neosho (11070209), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104)+, Frog-Mulberry (11110201)+, Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Petit Jean (11110204), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Lake Texoma (11130210), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)+, Lower Little (11140109)+, Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201)+, Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in early spring in Illinois, May to early July in Canada. Eggs hatch in about 2 weeks. Age of sexual maturity greater in north (6-10 years) than in south (some males mature in 1 year in South Dakota).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Makes seasonal migrations in some areas, upstream in spring, downstream in fall (Scott and Crossman 1973)
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes quiet turbid water of medium to large lowland rivers, the small lakes, ponds, and marshes connected to them, and muddy shallows of larger lakes. This fish prefers moderate to fast current in Illinois and Ohio. Spawning occurs in shallow firm-bottomed sites in river pools or backwaters or over gravel shoals in tributary streams. Eggs are semibuoyant and drift downstream or into quiet water).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Young-of-year eat mainly microcrustaceans, also other invertebrates. Older individuals eat mainly aquatic insects obtained at surface but also various other animals, including frogs, fishes, and small mammals.
Length: 50 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

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References for Watershed Distribution Map
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