Himantopus mexicanus - (Müller, 1776)
Black-necked Stilt
Other English Common Names: black-necked stilt
Other Common Names: Pernalonga-Comum
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Himantopus mexicanus (Muller, 1776) (TSN 176726)
French Common Names: Échasse d'Amérique
Spanish Common Names: Candelero Americano, Cigüeñela, Tero-Real
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105198
Element Code: ABNND01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Shorebirds
Image 7548

© Larry Master

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Recurvirostridae Himantopus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Himantopus mexicanus
Taxonomic Comments: H. m. mexicanus and H. m. knudseni are regarded as distinct species by some authors. H. mexicanus (including knudseni) may be conspecific with the several other nominal Himantopus species, in which case the name would be H. himantopus (Sibley and Monroe 1990).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 08Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 25Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Globally secure due primarily to large range, but occurrence tends to be much localized; population trends are poorly known for many regions.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4B,N4M (08Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3B), Arizona (S2), Arkansas (S3B), California (SNRB), Colorado (S3B), Delaware (S2B), Florida (SNRB), Georgia (S2), Hawaii (S2), Idaho (S4B), Illinois (S1), Kansas (S1B), Louisiana (S3N,S5B), Maryland (SNA), Mississippi (S3B), Missouri (SNRB), Montana (S3B), Navajo Nation (S3S4N), Nebraska (S3), Nevada (S3S4B), New Mexico (S4B,S4N), North Carolina (S1B), Oregon (S4), South Dakota (S1B), Texas (S5B), Utah (S4B), Virginia (S1B), Washington (S3B), Wyoming (S3B)
Canada Alberta (S2S3B), British Columbia (SNRN)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): PS
Comments on USESA: Subspecies knudseni of Hawaii is listed by USFWS as Endangered.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Large range but localized. BREEDS: locally on Atlantic coast from mid-Atlantic states south to southern Florida, and from southern Oregon, Idaho, northern Utah, southern Colorado, eastern New Mexico, central Kansas, Gulf Coast of Texas, and southern Louisiana and the Bahamas south through Middle America, Antilles, and most of South America to southern Chile and southern Argentina (AOU 1983); may breed also in eastern Montana and western South Dakota; resident in Hawaii (all main islands except Lanai). Mainly resident south of U.S. Some authors treat populations at the southern end of the range from central to southern South America as a distinct species (H. MELANURUS). NORTHERN WINTER: mostly southern California, southern coastal Texas, and Florida south through breeding range (AOU 1983).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total population estimated to be a minimum of 850,000, based on data from six of 10 populations. North American population estimate is 150,000 (Morrison et al. 2001).

Short-term Trend Comments: Morrison et al. (2001) state that the species appears to be expanding its range along the northern edge in recent years.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Large range but localized. BREEDS: locally on Atlantic coast from mid-Atlantic states south to southern Florida, and from southern Oregon, Idaho, northern Utah, southern Colorado, eastern New Mexico, central Kansas, Gulf Coast of Texas, and southern Louisiana and the Bahamas south through Middle America, Antilles, and most of South America to southern Chile and southern Argentina (AOU 1983); may breed also in eastern Montana and western South Dakota; resident in Hawaii (all main islands except Lanai). Mainly resident south of U.S. Some authors treat populations at the southern end of the range from central to southern South America as a distinct species (H. MELANURUS). NORTHERN WINTER: mostly southern California, southern coastal Texas, and Florida south through breeding range (AOU 1983).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IL, KS, LA, MD, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NM, NN, NV, OR, SD, TX, UT, VA, WA, WY
Canada AB, BC

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Cochise (04003), Maricopa (04013), Pima (04019), Yuma (04027)*
CO Alamosa (08003), Bent (08011), Boulder (08013)*, La Plata (08067), Larimer (08069)*, Mesa (08077), Saguache (08109), Weld (08123)
DE Kent (10001), Sussex (10005)
GA Camden (13039), Chatham (13051), Glynn (13127), Liberty (13179), Mcintosh (13191)
HI Hawaii (15001), Honolulu (15003), Kauai (15007), Maui (15009)
ID Ada (16001), Bear Lake (16007), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Camas (16025), Canyon (16027), Fremont (16043), Jefferson (16051), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073)
KS Barber (20007), Barton (20009), Harper (20077), Seward (20175), Stafford (20185)
MS Bolivar (28011), Humphreys (28053), Jackson (28059), Quitman (28119), Tallahatchie (28135)
MT Cascade (30013), Gallatin (30031), Golden Valley (30037), Lake (30047), Lewis and Clark (30049), Phillips (30071), Stillwater (30095), Teton (30099), Yellowstone (30111)
NC Beaufort (37013), Brunswick (37019), Carteret (37031), Currituck (37053), Dare (37055), New Hanover (37129), Onslow (37133), Pamlico (37137)
NE Adams (31001), Clay (31035), Garden (31069), Garfield (31071), Lincoln (31111)*, Phelps (31137), Seward (31159), Sheridan (31161), York (31185)
SD Brown (46013), McPherson (46089)
UT Box Elder (49003), Daggett (49009)*, Davis (49011), Juab (49023), Salt Lake (49035), Tooele (49045), Uintah (49047), Utah (49049)*, Weber (49057)
VA Accomack (51001), Portsmouth (City) (51740)
WA Adams (53001)+, Franklin (53021)+, Grant (53025)+
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Goshen (56015), Johnson (56019), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Park (56029), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Uinta (56041)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207)+, Chincoteague (02040303)+, Hampton Roads (02080208)+
03 Albemarle (03010205)+, Pamlico (03020104)+, Pamlico Sound (03020105)+, Lower Neuse (03020204)+, White Oak River (03020301)+, New River (03020302)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+, Lower Savannah (03060109)+, Ogeechee Coastal (03060204)+, Altamaha (03070106)+, Cumberland-St. Simons (03070203)+, St. Marys (03070204)+, Pascagoula (03170006)+, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+
08 Tallahatchie (08030202)+, Big Sunflower (08030207)+
10 Gallatin (10020008)+, Upper Missouri (10030101)+, Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102)+, Teton (10030205)+, Middle Milk (10050004)+, Beaver (10050014)+, Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin (10070004)+, Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar (10070007)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Dry (10080011)+, Upper Powder (10090202)+, Dry Fork Cheyenne (10120102)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, West Missouri Coteau (10130106)+, Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Elm (10160004)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Horse (10180012)+, Lower North Platte (10180014)+*, Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003)+*, St. Vrain (10190005)+*, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+*, Crow (10190009)+, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101)+, Cedar (10210010)+, Middle Republican (10250016)+, Upper Big Blue (10270201)+, West Fork Big Blue (10270203)+, Upper Little Blue (10270206)+
11 Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009)+, Rattlesnake (11030009)+, Cow (11030011)+, Upper Cimarron-Liberal (11040006)+, Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004)+
13 Alamosa-Trinchera (13010002)+, Saguache (13010004)+
14 Colorado headwaters-Plateau (14010005)+, New Fork (14040102)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Lower Green-Diamond (14060001)+, Animas (14080104)+
15 Imperial Reservoir (15030104)+*, Middle Gila (15050100)+, Willcox Playa (15050201)+, Upper Santa Cruz (15050301)+, Lower Salt (15060106)+*, Agua Fria (15070102)+, Hassayampa (15070103)+, Whitewater Draw (15080301)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Central Bear (16010102)+, Bear Lake (16010201)+, Lower Bear-Malad (16010204)+, Lower Weber (16020102)+, Utah Lake (16020201)+*, Jordan (16020204)+, Rush-Tooele Valleys (16020304)+, Southern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020306)+, Great Salt Lake (16020310)+, Lower Sevier (16030005)+*
17 Lower Flathead (17010212)+, Lower Crab (17020015), Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids (17020016), Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Camas (17040220)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Middle Snake-Payette (17050115)+, Palouse (17060108), Clearwater (17060306)+
20 Hawaii (20010000)+, Maui (20020000)+, Lanai (20040000)+, Molokai (20050000)+, Oahu (20060000)+, Kauai (20070000)+, Niihau (20080000)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: A tall slender wader with a long straight slender bill, black (male) or brownish (female) upperparts, white underparts, very long red or pink legs and feet, and a white spot above the eye; immatures have buffy edges on the dark feathers of the upperparts.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Unmistakable.
Reproduction Comments: Both adults, in turn, incubate 4 eggs about 25 days (Terres 1980). Nestlings are precocial. Young are tended by both adults, independent in about 4 weeks (Harrison 1978), first fly at 7-8 weeks (Berger 1981). Nests in small colonies.
Ecology Comments: Social; usually in loose groups of up to 50 (Costa Rica, Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Mainly resident south of U.S., though of variable abundance in winter in Puerto Rico (Raffaele 1983). Interior U.S. breeding populations make extensive seasonal migrations.
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, Tidal flat/shore
Riverine Habitat(s): Low gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Grassland/herbaceous, Savanna
Habitat Comments: Shallow salt or fresh water with soft muddy bottom; grassy marshes, wet savanna, mudflats, shallow ponds, flooded fields, borders of salt ponds and mangrove swamps (Tropical to Temperate zones) (AOU 1983, Raffaele 1983).

Nests along shallow water of ponds, lakes, swamps, or lagoons. May nest on the ground or in shallow water on a plant tussock.

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Feeds actively in shallow water; plucks food from surface of water or mud, or probes in soft mud; may peck or sweep bill to capture prey in water (Cullen, 1994, Wilson Bull. 106:508-513). Eats a variety of insects (e.g., bugs, beetles, caddisflies, mosquito larvae, grasshoppers), polychaetes, crustaceans, snails. Also feeds on some small fishes as well as the seeds of aquatic plants.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 36 centimeters
Weight: 166 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Shorebirds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Feeding Area, Breeding Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas of nesting adults and broods. Because separations are based on nesting areas, the foraging areas of different occurrences may overlap if nesting birds are traveling to distant places to feed.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance pertains specifically to nesting areas, not to locations of dispersed foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas.

The separation distance is an arbitrary value; it is impractical to attempt to delineate shorebird occurrences on the basis of dispersal patterns or metapopulation dynamics. Foraging ranges of some nesting shorebird species (see following) may suggest use of a larger separation distance, but this likely would result in occurrences that are too large and less effective for conservation planning.

Separation distance based on larger 'typical' breeding home ranges with diameters of 1.5 to 3 kilometers. Semipalmated Plovers have breeding home ranges up to 3 square kilometers, i.e. a diameter of just under 2 kilometers (Nol and Blanken 1999). Red-necked Phalaropes have a core home range of 1-3 hectares, but occasionally travel 1.5 kilometers to feed (Rubega et al. 2000). Stilt Sandpipers can forage up to 8 kilometers from nest (Jehl 1973). Mountain Plovers have an average home range of 56.6 hectares (Knopf 1996) but broods typically move 1-2 kilometers shortly after hatching (Knopf and Rupert 1996).

Territories: Common Snipe, 6.4-28.6 hectares (Mueller 1999); Long-billed Dowitcher, 100-300 meter diameter (Johnsgard 1981); golden-plovers, average 10-59 hectares (Johnson and Connors 1996); Long-billed Curlew, 6-20 hectares (Johnsgard 1981).

Nesting densities: Black-bellied Plover, 0.3-2.3 pairs per square kilometer (44 ha per pair at latter density; Hussell and Page 1976, Parmelee et al. 1967); Marbled Godwit, maximum density 1 pair/32 hectares (Stewart and Kantrud 1972).

Foraging distances: Greater and Lesser Yellowlegs, up to 13 kilometers from nest (Elphick and Tibbits 1998, Tibbits and Moskoff 1999).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1.5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a smaller 'typical' home ranges (see Separation Justification).
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Roost, Foraging concentration area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat (minimum can be reduced in the case of rarer species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 15Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Roost, Winter Feeding Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 18Jan1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Breeding Bird Atlas 2000-2006 Homepage. 2009. T.M. Haggerty (editor), Alabama Ornithological Society. Available at http://www.una.edu/faculty/thaggerty/BBA%20website/Index.htm.

  • Alabama Ornithological Society. 2006. Field checklist of Alabama birds. Alabama Ornithological Society, Dauphin Island, Alabama. [Available online at http://www.aosbirds.org/documents/AOSChecklist_april2006.pdf ]

  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • American Ornithologists Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pages.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • Andrews, R. R. and R. R. Righter. 1992. Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 442 pp.

  • Bailey, A. M. and R. J. Niedrach. 1965. Birds of Colorado. Denver Museum of Natural History. 2 vols. 895 pp.

  • Berger, A. J. 1981. Hawaiian Birdlife. Second Edition. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. xv + 260 pp.

  • BirdLife International. 2004b. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

  • Braun, M. J., D. W. Finch, M. B. Robbins, and B. K. Schmidt. 2000. A field checklist of the birds of Guyana. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

  • Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G.W. Kaiser, and M.C.E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia Vol. 2: Nonpasserines: Diurnal Birds of Prey through Woodpeckers. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC.

  • Castro, I. and A. Phillips. 1996. A guide to the birds of the Galapagos Islands. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

  • Colorado Bird Observatory. 1997. 1996 Reference Guide to the Monitoring and Conservation Status of Colorado's Breeding Birds. Colorado Bird Observatory, Colorado Division of Wildlife, Great Outdoors Colorado Trust Fund, and Partners, March 21, 1997.

  • Godfrey, W. E. 1986. The birds of Canada. Revised edition. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa. 596 pp. + plates.

  • Gratto-Trevor, C.L. 2001. Increasing numbers of Black-necked Stilts in Canada. Bird Trends (Canadian Wildlife Service) 8: 30.

  • Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.

  • Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

  • Imhof, T. A. 1976. Alabama birds. Second edition. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 445 pages.

  • Jehl, J. R., Jr. 1973. Breeding biology and systematic relationships of the stilt sandpiper. Wilson Bulletin 85:115-147.

  • Knopf, F.L. 1996. Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus). In A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The Birds of North America, No. 211. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 16 pp.

  • Knopf, F.L., and J.R. Rupert. 1996. Productivity and movements of mountain plovers breeding in Colorado. Wilson Bulletin 108:28-35.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Morrison, R. I. G. 1994. Shorebird population status and trends in Canada. Bird Trends (3):3-5. Canadian Wildlife Service.

  • Morrison, R. I. G., R. E. Gill, Jr., B. A. Harrington, S. Skagen, G. W. Page, C. L. Gratto-Trevor, and S. M. Haig. 2001. Estimates of shorebird populations in North America. Occasional Paper Number 104, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON. 64 pages.

  • Morrison, R.I.G. 1993/1994. Shorebird population status and trends in Canada. Bird Trends (3):3-5. Canadian Wildlife Service.

  • Morrison, R.I.G. 2001. Estimates of shorebird populations in North America. Bird Trends (Canadian Wildlife Service) 8: 5-9.

  • Nelson, D. 1993. Colorado Bird Atlas: Manual on Use of Breeding Codes. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 27 pp.

  • Nol, E., and M. S. Blanken. 1999. Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus). No. 444 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, eds. The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 24pp.

  • Oberholser, H.C. 1974. The bird life of Texas. 2 vols. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin.

  • Parker III, T. A., D. F. Stotz, and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases for neotropical birds. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  • Parks Canada. 2000. Vertebrate Species Database. Ecosystems Branch, 25 Eddy St., Hull, PQ, K1A 0M5.

  • Peterson, R. T. 1980. A field guide to the birds of eastern and central North America. Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 384 pages.

  • Peterson, R.T. 1980b. A field guide to the birds of eastern and central North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

  • Peterson, R.T. 1990b. A field guide to western birds. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

  • Poole, A. F. and F. B. Gill. 1992. The birds of North America. The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. and The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Raffaele, H. A. 1983a. A guide to the birds of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Fondo Educativo Interamericano, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 255 pp.

  • Raffaele, H., J. Wiley, O. Garrido, A. Keith, and J. Raffaele. 1998. A guide to the birds of the West Indies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 511 pp.

  • Rappole, J.H., Morton, E.S., Lovejoy, T.E. and Ruos, J.L. 1983. Nearctic avian migrants in the Neotropics. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service and World Wildlife Fund, Washington D.C.

  • Ridgely, R. S. 2002. Distribution maps of South American birds. Unpublished.

  • Ridgely, R. S. and J. A. Gwynne, Jr. 1989. A Guide to the Birds of Panama. 2nd edition. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA.

  • Ridgely, R. S. and P. J. Greenfield. 2001. The birds of Ecuador: Status, distribution, and taxonomy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA.

  • Robinson, J.A., et al. 1999. Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus). In The Birds of North America, No. 449. (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

  • Rubega, M. A., D. Schamel, and D. M. Tracy. 2000. Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus). No. 538 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 28pp.

  • Saunders, A. A. 1921. A distributional list of the birds of Montana. Pac. Coast Avifauna 14. 194 pp.

  • See SERO listing

  • Semenchuk, G.P. 1992. The atlas of breeding birds of Alberta. Federation of Alberta Naturalists. 391 pp.

  • Sibley, C.G., and B.L. Monroe, Jr. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. xxiv + 1111 pp.

  • Sibley, D. A. 2000a. The Sibley guide to birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Skaar, D., D. Flath, and L. S. Thompson. 1985. Montana bird distribution. Monograph #3, supplement vol. 44. Proceedings Montana Academy of Sciences. 71 pp.

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