Hieracium aurantiacum - L.
Orange Hawkweed
Other English Common Names: Devil's Paint Brush, Devil's Paintbrush, Fox and Cubs, King Devil
Other Common Names: orange hawkweed
Synonym(s): Pilosella aurantiaca (Linnaeus) F.W. Shultz and Schultz Bipontinus
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hieracium aurantiacum L. (TSN 37697)
French Common Names: épervière orangée
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.131566
Element Code: PDAST4W090
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Hieracium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hieracium aurantiacum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (22Mar1994)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Montana (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Labrador (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AKexotic, ARexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KYexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SDexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, LBexotic, MBexotic, NBexotic, NFexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Medium
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Hieracium aurantiacum, although considered aggressive, there doesn't appear to be a studied link to any specific ecosystem effects other than loss of biodiversity. The extreme negative connotations of the various common names suggest that this has long been recognized as an undesirable species. However, it is an ornamental that is still sold in the nursery trade, and therefore may cause accessibility issues.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Medium/Low
I-Rank Review Date: 14Sep2004
Evaluator: Fellows, M.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Europe (Gleason 1952) from Norway to France, east to Ukraine and Yugosalvia (GRIN 2001).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Reported from an open woodland in 1935 and nearby disturbed areas (Deam 1940).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Medium/Low significance
Comments: No severe ecosystem effects are reported, but still considered troublesome (Fernald 1950) and agressive (NWCB 2003).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Extensive stolong production produces a dense mat that can eliminate other species (Callihan and Miller 1999).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:High/Low significance
Comments: Considered troublesome (Fernald 1950) and agressive (NWCB 2003).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Medium/Low significance
Comments: May compete with cogeners like Hieracium longipilum (Howe 2000).

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Low significance
Comments: Fields, roadsides and meadows (Gleason 1952; NWCB 2003). Reported from an open woodland in 1935 and nearby disturbed areas (Deam 1940).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Scattered distribution, mostly in the northeast US, western US and AK and FL (Kartesz 1999; NRCS 2004).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Moderate significance
Comments: Especially widespread and common in New England and the northeast (Wherry 1979; NRCS 2004) and Washington (King County 2004).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Inferred from scattered distribution (Kartesz 1999; NRCS 2004) and ecoregion locations (TNC 2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Fields, roadsides and meadows (Gleason 1952; NWCB 2003). Reported from an open woodland in 1935 and nearby disturbed areas (Deam 1940).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Similar distributions mentioned in early floras (Fernald 1950; Gleason 1952) as in Kartesz (1999).

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Medium/Low significance
Comments: USDA Zone tolerances (5a-10b (Dave's Garden 2004))are reported to include large areas to the south of current range (Kartesz 1999).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High significance
Comments: Dispersal could be as a result of deliberate introductions for horticulture in Indiana (Deam 1940). Available for sale on the Internet (September 2004). Accidental transport on machinery, in animal fur or clothing will also disperse seeds long distances (CRC Weed Management 2003). Wind and water are also dispersal agents (CRC Weed Management 2003).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Low significance
Comments: Quickly growing rhizomes and stolons allow for local expansion (CRC Weed Management 2003).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: Inferred from preferred habitats.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Temperate regions of the world (GRIN 2001), including Canada (Kartesz 1999). In Australia, the concern is for alpine habitats(CRC Weed Management 2003), which do not appear to be invaded in the US.

16. Reproductive Characteristics:High significance
Comments: Reproduces via seed, stolons and rhizomes (CRC Weed Management 2003; NWCB 2004). May resprout from root fragments (NWCB 2004).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Medium/Low

17. General Management Difficulty:High/Moderate significance
Comments: May resprout from root fragments, therefore method most kill or remove roots (NWCB 2004). Some herbicides can be effective (NWCB 2004), especially when used in combination with a grass fertilizer (Callihan and Miller 1999).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Low significance
Comments: No indication of a long-lived seed bank, but repeated visits will be necessary to ensure there are no resprouts.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: Non target damage could result from herbicide use.

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Used as an ornamental in Indiana (Deam 1940) and Washington (King County 2004).
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • CRC Weed Management. 2003. Weed Management Guide. Orange Hawkweed - Hieracium aurantiacum. Available ONLINE: http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/pubs/h-aurantiacum.pdf. Accessed 2004.

  • Callihan, R. H., and T. W. Miller. 1999. Idaho's Noxious Weeds. (revised by Don W. Morishita and Larry W. Lass). University of Idaho. Online. Available: http://www.oneplan.org/Crop/noxWeeds/nxWeed00.htm (accessed 2004).

  • Dave's Garden. 2000-2004. The plants database. Available: http://plantsdatabase.com/. (Accessed 2004).

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Hand, R., N. Killian, and E. von Raab-Straube (eds.) 2009+ International Cichorieae Network: Cichorieae Portal. http://wp6-cichorieae.e-taxonomy.eu/portal

  • Howe, K.M. 2000. Competitive effects of an introduced species, Hieracium aurantiacum, on a native congener. ABSTRACT. Available ONLINE: http://abstracts.co.allenpress.com/pweb/esa2000/abstracts/KAT-3-35-21.html. Accessed 2004.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • King County Noxious Weed Control Board. 2004. Hawkweeds - Hieracium spp. Natural Resources and Parks, Water and Land Resources Division, Seattle, Washington. Available ONLINE http://dnr.metrokc.gov/weeds. Accessed 03/17/2004.

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. 2001. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/var/apache/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?6438. (Accessed 2004)

  • USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov) . National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

  • Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board (NWCB). 2003. Written Findings of the State Noxious Weed Control Board. Available: http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/contents_common.html. (Accessed 2004).

  • Wherry, E. T. 1979. Atlas of the Flora of Pennsylvania. Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 390 pp.

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