Hibiscus dasycalyx - Blake & Shiller
Neches River Rosemallow
Other English Common Names: Neeches River Rose-Mallow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hibiscus dasycalyx Blake & Shiller (TSN 21627)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.132707
Element Code: PDMAL0H0E0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mallow Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Malvales Malvaceae Hibiscus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hibiscus dasycalyx
Taxonomic Comments: Genetic studies confirm that Hibiscus dasycalyx is a valid species, distinct from other sympatric Hibiscus species (Mendoza 2004 in Parris 2009).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Dec2010
Global Status Last Changed: 21Sep1989
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: An east Texas endemic. Four extant populations are known. Four formerly documented populations have not been recently observed. The species has been introduced at four other sites. Populations have been subjected to heavy herbicide use in the past, and that, along with mowing, continues to be a threat. In addition, all of the occurrences are subject to genetic swamping by more common Hibiscus species that are perhaps better adapted to human-disturbed conditions.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Texas (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (11Sep2013)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R2 - Southwest

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Known only from Cherokee, Harrison, Houston, and Trinity counties in east Texas (Poole et al. 2007). Extent of occurrence is approximately 2000 sq km (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of November 2010).

Area of Occupancy: 3-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Three to four 4-sq km grid cells (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of November 2010).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Four natural populations are known to be extant; four other populations have no recent observations (USFWS 2012). In addition, the species has been planted at four sites (USFWS 2012).

Population Size Comments: Approximately 2200 plants as of the most recent estimates (USFWS 2010). In addition, there are approximately 210 plants at introduced sites (USFWS 2010).

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by herbicide use and inappropriate mowing on highway right-of-ways and private lands (USFWS 2010). All right-of-way populations are small or have been extirpated (USFWS 2010). Also seriously threatened by hybridization with other Hibiscus species that are invading some sites due to habitat alteration (USFWS 2010). Other major threats include cattle grazing resulting in soil compaction and trampling, wetland drainage and filling, wetland conversion to stock ponds, and water-table changes (USFWS 2010). Invasive plants (tallow and sweetgum) are also a threat (USFWS 2010). Also a threat is drought. Extreme drought occurred in 1998-2001 and short-term droughts have contninued to occur in recent years (USFWS 2010).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: As of 2009, four populations had declined to zero individuals, one was stable, and two had unknown trends (USFWS 2010). In 1995, three populations then known were noted as declining (USFWS 1995). USFWS has introduced the species to three other sites as part of a recovery effort (USFWS 2010; Creech et al. 1999). Habitat has been affected by drainage and filling, channelization, road construction, and herbicide use. Serious impacts from heavy herbicide use have been documented at several sites.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: The sites are in separate counties and separate watersheds, suggesting a wide historical range (Warnock 1995 in USFWS 2010).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Subject to hybridization and genetic swamping when co-occurring with Hibiscus laevis and Hibiscus moscheutos (USFWS 2010). Sensitive to drought; drought has reduced the reproductive capacity of the species in recent years (USFWS 2010).

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Occurs primarily in sunny areas in the narrow band between high and low water levels within floodplains of permanent streams or rivers (for example, oxbow lakes), a very specialized but not highly limited habitat (USFWS 2004).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Known only from Cherokee, Harrison, Houston, and Trinity counties in east Texas (Poole et al. 2007). Extent of occurrence is approximately 2000 sq km (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of November 2010).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
TX Cherokee (48073), Gregg (48183), Harrison (48203), Houston (48225), Nacogdoches (48347), Rusk (48401), Trinity (48455)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002)+, Middle Neches (12020002)+, Upper Angelina (12020004)+, Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb, up to 2.3 m tall, with T-shaped, deeply 3-lobed leaves and showy white flowers. Blooms from May to July or later.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Openings in shrub swamps or along the margins of riparian woodlands in seasonally wet soils (often found near standing water). Sites are typically flooded during late winter and early spring, but the surface soils are often quite dry by late summer.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Prevent changes in the water regime at existing sites. Continue to look for plants in right of way sites and work on managment agreements for these areas.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 18Dec2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Brown, B.A. (1985), rev. Poole/Maybury (1996), rev. Maybury (2002), rev. L. Morse (2005), rev. A. Tomaino (2010)
Management Information Edition Date: 18Sep2010
Management Information Edition Author: Tomaino, A.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Blake, S.F. 1958. Two species of Hibiscus from Texas. J. Washington Academy Science 48(9): 277-278.

  • Blanchard, O.J., Jr. 1976. A revision of species segregated from Hibiscus sect. Trionum (Medicus) de Candolle sensu lato (Malvaceae). Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell Univ., Ithica, New York.

  • Correll, D.S., and H.B. Correll. 1972. Aquatic and wetland plants of southwestern United States. 2 volumes. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 1777 pp.

  • Correll, D.S., and M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner. 1881 pp.

  • Creech, D., D. Parrish, B. Clack. 1999. Saving the Neches River rose mallow, Hibsicus dasycalyx. Native plant Society of Texas News. 17(3): 1-3. [http://ag.sfasu.edu/UserFiles/File/PNPC%20HOME/SAVING%20THE%20NECHES%20RIVER%20ROSE%20MALLOW.pdf]

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kennedy, K.L., and J.M. Poole. 1990. Status report on Hibiscus dasycalyx (Neches River rose-mallow). Report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  • Nemec, K. 2002. Candidate and listing priority assignment form: Hibiscus dasycalyx. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Clear Lake (Houston) Field Office, Houston, Texas.

  • Nixon, E.S., and B.L. Cunningham. 1985. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of East Texas. B.L. Cunningham Productions, Nacogdoches, Texas. 240 pp.

  • Parris, S.D. 2009. March last update. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hibiscus dasycalyx. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candforms_pdf/ (Accessed 2010).

  • Poole, J. M., W. R. Carr, D. M. Price and J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. Texas A & M University Press. College Station, Texas. 640 pp.

  • Poole, Jackie M., W. R. Carr, D. M. Price, and J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. Texas A&M University Press, College Station. 640 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1995. Category and Listing Priority Form.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2003. Draft candidate assessment and priority assignment form for Hibiscus dasycalyx. USFWS.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form. Hibiscus dasycalyx. 11 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2010. April last update. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hibiscus dasycalyx. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candforms_pdf/r2/Q0ZH_P01.pdf (Accessed 2010).

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS. 2012. Determination of status for Texas golden gladecress and Neches River rose-mallow and designation of critical habitat. Federal Register 77(176): 55968-56026.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Determination of Endangered Status for Texas Golden Gladecress and Threatened Status for Neches River Rose-Mallow. Federal Register 78(176): 56026-56069.

  • Warnock, M.J. 1995. Status report on Hibiscus dasycalyx (Neches River rose-mallow). Report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Cleark Lake, Texas. 40 pp.

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