Hexastylis naniflora - Blomquist
Dwarf-flower Heartleaf
Other Common Names: dwarfflower heartleaf
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hexastylis naniflora Blomquist (TSN 194912)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.148635
Element Code: PDARI03060
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Birthwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Aristolochiales Aristolochiaceae Hexastylis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hexastylis naniflora
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23May2016
Global Status Last Changed: 16Mar2004
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This species has a restricted range and is endemic to the upper Piedmont of North and South Carolina.  Threats are low to moderate with the greatest threats coming from commercial and residential development, and road improvement and construction.  Many occurrences are appropriately protected and managed, especially in South Carolina.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States North Carolina (S3), South Carolina (S3)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (14Apr1989)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: The current reported range is Cherokee, Greenville and Spartanburg counties, South Carolina; and Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, Catawba, Cleveland, Gaston, Iredell, Lincoln, Polk, and Rutherford counties, North Carolina.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: In 2016, there were 109 occurrences in NC and SC determined using the Global Element Occurrence Specifications (2004 version).

Population Size Comments: In 2015, the estimated number of plants for a subset of 13 monitored North and South Carolina occurrences was 202,346.

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats to this species occur at low to moderate levels and include agricultural threats such as incompatible forestry practices and disturbance from cattle, impacts from transportation improvements to roads and highways, damage from recreational activities including foot traffic and ORV use, invasive plant species, residential and commercial development, and siltation and erosion resulting from severe weather.   

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Based on the results of recent surveys and a review of all known populations of Hexastylis naniflora, the overall short-term trend over approximately 30 years is estimated to be declining 10-30%. This is estimated by a combination of documented declines of some populations, while many others appear to be remaining relatively stable, and some have increased.
(Robinson 2016).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: The current reported range is Cherokee, Greenville and Spartanburg counties, South Carolina; and Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, Catawba, Cleveland, Gaston, Iredell, Lincoln, Polk, and Rutherford counties, North Carolina.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NC, SC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Alexander (37003), Burke (37023), Caldwell (37027), Catawba (37035), Cleveland (37045), Gaston (37071), Iredell (37097), Lincoln (37109), Polk (37149), Rutherford (37161)
SC Cherokee (45021), Greenville (45045), Spartanburg (45083)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 South Yadkin (03040102)+, Upper Catawba (03050101)+, South Fork Catawba (03050102)+, Upper Broad (03050105)+, Tyger (03050107)+, Enoree (03050108)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A stemless perennial herb with mottled heart-shaped leaves 4-6 cm wide, supported on thin leaf-stems arising from an underground rhizome. Small dark brown or maroon-splotched flowers are borne near the rhizome tip, sometimes not rising above the leaf litter. Blooms in April and May.
Technical Description: see Blomquist, 1957 (A57BLO01HQUS).
Diagnostic Characteristics: This species has the smallest flowers of any Hexastylis in North America. Hexastylis virginica has triangular to some broadly arrow-shaped leaves and lacks ridges within the calyx tube. Hexastylis naniflora differs from all the other members of this group in having no flare in the calyx-tube.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Ecology Comments: Hexastylis naniflora is found on moist to rather dry north-facing slopes of ravines in the Piedmont, usually in the oak-hickory-pine community type. The oak species are mostly Quercus velutina, Q. falcata, Q. prinus, Q. stellata, Q. alba, Q. coccinea; the hickories usually Carya glabra, C. tomentosa, C. ovalis; the pines mostly Pinus echinata, P. viginiana. The understory contains Cornus, Cercis, Oxydendrum, with Kalmia predominant. Associated herbaceous species are Hepatica americana, Chimaphila, Epigaea, Uvularia, Sanguinaria, Viola, Polygonatum, Polystichum. Generally the Hexastylis plants are around tree bases or under the Kalmia, on steepish slopes along streams.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Acidic soils on moist to rather dry north-facing slopes of ravines and along bluffs and hillsides in boggy areas next to streams. Vegetation is typically oak-hickory-pine forests of the Piedmont.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: One or more recurring or potentially recurring individual.
Separation Barriers: Major watershed boundaries.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Justification: Although this species tends to occupy the upper slopes of tributaries and small riparian corridors, this species is not considered dependent on the riparian corridors for dispersal; it is believed to occupy its topographic position along drainages because of a response to microhabitat factors. The species is thought to disperse seeds via ants and not water. Separation distances should be measured along suitable habitat (following drainage ways and revines).
Date: 04Apr2005
Author: M. Franklin
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: An A-ranked population of Hexastylis naniflora should have more than 500 clumps (rosettes) occurring in greater than one acre of high quality forest such as Dry-Mesic Oak Hickory Forest or Mesic Mixed Hardwood Forest.
Good Viability: A B-ranked population of Hexastylis naniflora should have 200-500 clumps (rosettes) occurring in greater than one acre of high quality forest such as Dry-Mesic Oak Hickory Forest or Mesic Mixed Hardwood Forest - OR -
more than 500 clumps occurring in less than one acre of high quality forest or on land impacted by human disturbance such as logging, grazing, mowing, etc.

Fair Viability: A C-ranked population of Hexastylis naniflora should have 100-200 clumps (rosettes) occurring in greater than one acre of high quality forest such as Dry-Mesic Oak Hickory Forest or Mesic Mixed Hardwood Forest - OR -
200- 500 clumps occurring in less than one acre of high quality forest or on land impacted by human disturbance such as logging, grazing, mowing, etc.

Poor Viability: A D-ranked population of Hexastylis naniflora should have fewer than 100 clumps (rosettes) occurring in greater than one acre of high quality forest such as Dry-Mesic Oak Hickory Forest or Mesic Mixed Hardwood Forest - OR -
less than 200 clumps occurring in less than one acre of high quality forest or on land impacted by human disturbance such as logging, grazing, mowing, etc.

Justification: The unit of measurement for population size in this species is "clump" (rosette).
EO size (as quantified by number of clumps or rosettes) is the primary rank factor. Condition of habitat (vegetation community and structure) and Landscape context (extent of suitable habitat and physical factors) are also incorporated secondarily.

The species thrives most in undisturbed habitat. However, disturbed lands, that have been logged, grazed, mown, or converted to pasture, orchards, or tree plantations have been found to support remnant patches of Hexastylis naniflora. The extent to which this species can withstand disturbance is unknown. Populations in disturbed habitat are considered at risk, with relatively poor viability (C or D).

Care should be taken when estimating population size, as population estimates have been found to vary widely from the number counted in population censuses.

Specifications are based on largest known populations and expert opinion (including James Padgett, Carolyn Wells, Misty Franklin and Brenda Wichmann).

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 03May2005
Author: M. Franklin
Notes: Draft specs -- to be reviewed during fieldwork of May 2005.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23May2016
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Maybury 2004, rev Amoroso 2016
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 09Aug1990

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Blomquist, H.L. 1957. A revision of Hexastylis of North America. Brittonia 8(4): 255-281.

  • Cooper, J.E., S.S. Robinson, and J.B. Funderburg (eds.). 1977. Endangered and threatened plants and animals of North Carolina. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. 444 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1997. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 3. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 590 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Robinson, L. 2016. Dwarf-flowered Heartleaf (Hexastylis naniflora) range-wide status report. August 2016. Final Report to U.S. Department of the Interior--U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service by North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural and Cultural Resources

  • Robinson, L.G. 2016. Dwarf-flowered Heartleaf (Hexastylis naniflora) Range-wide status report. N.C. Natural Heritage Program final report to the U.S. Department of the Interior ? U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Raleigh, NC. 43pp.

  • Robinson, L.G. and J. Padgett. 2016. Dwarf-flowered Heartleaf (Hexastylis naniflora) Comprehensive review and monitoring report. N.C. Natural Heritage Program final report to the U.S. Department of the Interior ? U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Raleigh, NC.  53pp.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1988. Proposed threatened status for dwarf-flowered heartleaf. Federal Register 53(77): 13223-13226.

  • Wells, Carolyn. 2006. Dwarf-flowered heartleaf (Hexastylis naniflora) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Asheville, NC, Field Office, Asheville, NC.

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