Hesperis matronalis - L.
Dame's Rocket
Other English Common Names: Mother-of-the-Evening
Other Common Names: dames rocket
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hesperis matronalis L. (TSN 23138)
French Common Names: julienne des dames
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.157721
Element Code: PDBRA1B010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mustard Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Capparales Brassicaceae Hesperis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hesperis matronalis
Taxonomic Comments: Introduced and naturalized from Europe.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Mar1995
Global Status Last Changed: 29Mar1995
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (04Feb2014)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AKexotic, ARexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, GA, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MOexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NDexotic, NEexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SDexotic, TNexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, MBexotic, NBexotic, NFexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Medium
I-Rank Reasons Summary: A widespread plant that continues to be sold, and labelled, 'native.' No documented negative impacts in natural areas.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: High/Low
I-Rank Review Date: 23Apr2004
Evaluator: Fellows, M.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Temperate Asia and central and southern Europe (Weber 2003).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No known ecosystem threats (Mehrhoff et al. 2003).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Dense infestations (Weber 2003). Perennial herb (Weber 2003). May be able to exclude shrubs (Weber 2003).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Excludes native species and prevents regeneration to the point that it may become the dominant understory species (Weber 2003).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Unknown

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Low significance
Comments: Open woods and moist bottomlands (Gleason and Cronquist 1991; WI DNR 2004), along roadsides, and in open areas (WI DNR 2004).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Throughout northern and central US, including AK (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:High/Low significance
Comments: On the noxious weed list in Colorado (Kartesz 1999). Considered to be a significant threat in Tennessee and Wisconsin (Invasive.org 2003). Widely recognized weed in the Midwest (WI DNR 2004).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High significance
Comments: Inferred from Kartesz (1999) and TNC (2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Forests, forest gaps, grasslands and hedges (Weber 2003). In it's native range, it grows in damp, shaded places, riparian habitats and disturbed places (Weber 2003). Open woods and moist bottomlands (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Not reported as escaped until 1915 (Deam 1940); however reached a broad distribution by 1952 (Gleason).

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Inferred from current distribution (Kartesz 1999).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High significance
Comments: Traditional ornamental (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Still for sale on the internet, often as part of wildflower mixes (4/04).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Spreads rapidly from seed, forming dense infestations (Weber 2003).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Open woods and moist bottomlands (Gleason and Cronquist 1991; WI DNR 2004), along roadsides, and in open areas (WI DNR 2004).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Present in Canada (Kartesz 1999; Weber 2003) and New Zealand (Weber 2003). US habitats are similar to native range habitats (Weber 2003; WI DNR 2004).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Low significance
Comments: Large quantities of seed (Weber 2003; WI DNR 2004).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: High/Low

17. General Management Difficulty:Moderate significance
Comments: Hand pull small infestations (Weber 2003). Herbicide use on denser, monospecific populations (Weber 2003). Eradication may not be difficult once established (WI DNR 2004). Burning can control infestations where there is sufficient fuel (WI DNR 2004).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Seedlings may emerge from the seed bank after the initial treatment (Weber 2003).

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:High/Low significance
Comments: A favorite ornamental.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Invasive.org. 2003. Species Account. ONLINE. http://www.invasive.org. Accessed 2004, February.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

  • Mehrhoff, L.J., J.A. Silander, Jr., S.A. Leicht and E. Mosher. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. Online. Available: http://invasives.eeb.uconn.edu/ipane/.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 548 pp.

  • Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 2004. February 4 last update. Non-Native Plants, Dame's Rocket (Hesperis matronalis). Available ONLINE. http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/land/er/invasive/factsheets/dames.htm. Accessed 23 April 2004.

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