Helianthus eggertii - Small
Eggert's Sunflower
Other Common Names: Eggert's sunflower
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Helianthus eggertii Small (TSN 36639)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.136206
Element Code: PDAST4N0J0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Helianthus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Helianthus eggertii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Mar2003
Global Status Last Changed: 28Mar1997
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Known only from the Interior Low Plateaus (Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Plain) of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama where it occurs in barrens habitat. Currently, 123 populations are scattered throughout the plant's range (R. Tawes pers. comm. 2003). These populations contain hundreds to thousands of ramets (R. Tawes pers. comm. 2003). Threats to this species are fire suppression, conversion of the habitat for other uses, exotic plant invasion, right-of-way maintenance, and herbivory (USFWS 1998). The plant is known to respond positively to management activities including burning and mowing. Herbicide applications (using appropriate procedures) may also be beneficial in eliminating invasive species.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Kentucky (S2), South Carolina (S1), Tennessee (S3)

Other Statuses

Comments on USESA: Helianthus eggertii was proposed threatened on September 9, 1994, listed threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on May 22, 1997, and proposed for delisting on April 5, 2004. It was delisted on August 18, 2005 "because recovery actions have secured a number of populations and identified additional populations not previously known."
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs within portions of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Alabama.

Area of Occupancy: 501-12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Since listing, surveys have documented numerous new occurrences throughout the species range (R. Tawes pers. comm. 2003).

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The foreseeable threat with the greatest impact is habitat degradation/loss.
This species is threatened by loss of barrens habitat due to lack of periodic fire. Because of fire suppression, sites are threatened by weedy and woody succession (USFWS 1998).
Other threats to this species are conversion of the habitat for other uses, roadside and powerline maintenance including herbicide spraying and inappropriately timed-mowing, invasive exotic plants, and herbivory (USFWS 1998).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Sites monitored over the past five years are generally exhibiting a stable to increasing population trend (R. Tawes pers. comm. 2003).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-90%
Long-term Trend Comments: The quality and the extent of the barrens/woodland ecosystem in which this species occurs has dramatically declined since European settlement (USFWS 1998).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs within portions of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Alabama.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, KY, SC, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Blount (01009), Calhoun (01015), Franklin (01059), Madison (01089), Winston (01133)
KY Adair (21001), Barren (21009), Edmonson (21061), Grayson (21085), Hardin (21093), Hart (21099), Larue (21123), Metcalfe (21169), Pulaski (21199), Taylor (21217), Warren (21227)
NC Jackson (37099)*
SC York (45091)
TN Cheatham (47021), Coffee (47031), Davidson (47037), Dickson (47043), Franklin (47051), Giles (47055), Grundy (47061), Lawrence (47099), Lewis (47101), Marion (47115), Maury (47119), Morgan (47129)*, Robertson (47147), Sequatchie (47153), Van Buren (47175), Wayne (47181), Williamson (47187)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Catawba (03050103)+, Middle Coosa (03150106)+, Mulberry (03160109)+, Sipsey Fork (03160110)+
05 Upper Green (05110001)+, Barren (05110002)+, Rough (05110004)+, Rockcastle (05130102)+, Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103)+, Collins (05130107)+, Caney (05130108)+, Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202)+, Harpeth (05130204)+, Rolling Fork (05140103)+, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+
06 Tuckasegee (06010203)+*, Emory (06010208)+*, Guntersville Lake (06030001)+, Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Upper Elk (06030003)+, Lower Elk (06030004)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Bear (06030006)+, Upper Duck (06040002)+, Lower Duck (06040003)+, Buffalo (06040004)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A tall (up to 2.5 m) perennial herb that produces large yellow flower heads (each 5-7.5 cm wide) borne in branching, leafy clusters. In bloom from early August through mid-September.
General Description: A tall (up to 2.5 m) perennial herb with large yellow flower heads, growing from elongate rhizomes, in bloom from early August through mid-September. Stems are erect, from a short, thick base. Leaves are mostly ovate to broadly lanceolate, the largest 10-20 cm long. Flowers in compound, branching, leafy inflorescences, which terminate in one or several heads. The ray (outer) flowers rich yellow, about 2.5 cm long (the whole head in bloom 5-7.5 cm wide). The disc (central) flowers about 0.5 cm long, also yellow, with 5 spreading-triangular lobes. Fruit a deep brown, smooth, 3-4 angled, 0.5 cm long seed (achene), these numerous in the mature heads.
Technical Description: A tall (up to 2.5 m) perennial herb with large yellow flower heads, growing from elongate rhizomes, smooth and glaucous except for the roughish upper leaf surfaces; in bloom from early August through mid-September. The stems are erect, from a short, thick base, round in cross-section, usually purplish or reddish at least above the middle, rarely branched below. Leaves are mostly ovate to broadly lanceolate, the largest 10-20 cm long, opposite above, alternate near the base, the lower ones absent at flowering time; blue-waxy above, paler beneath; low-toothed, somewhat rolled-over. Leaf bases rounded to wedge-shaped, with short stems or none.

Flowers in compound, branching, leafy inflorescences, which terminate in one or several heads. The heads are surrounded by greenish, spreading, lanceolate to linear bracts in several series. The ray (outer) flowers rich yellow, about 2.5 cm long (the whole head in bloom 5-7.5 cm wide). The disc (central) flowers about 0.5 cm long, also yellow, with 5 spreading- triangular lobes. Fruit a deep brown, smooth, 3-4 angled, 0.5 cm long seed (achene), these numerous in the mature heads.

Diagnostic Characteristics: There are several perennial sunflowers which share this habitat. H. eggertii is distinct for its colonial habit, smooth, waxy stems, blue-waxy and roughish upper leaf surfaces, paler-waxy lower leaf surfaces, nearly sessile leaves, and large heads.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Barrens, Forest/Woodland, Savanna, Woodland - Hardwood
Habitat Comments: Associated with rocky, open oak-hickory woodlands and barrens, especially upland woodlands on low-moisture, well drained soils. Historically, frequent fire maintained an open, savanna-like aspect to these areas.
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Jan1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Maybury, K. and M. Pyne (1996), rev. L. Morse (1997), rev. A. Olivero (2003)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • JONES, RONALD L. 1992. STATUS SURVEY REPORT ON HELIANTHUS EGGERTII. REPORT TO U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE.

  • Jones, R.L. 1994. The status of Helianthus eggertii Small in the southeastern United States. Castanea 54(4): 319-330.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983a. A report on some rare, threatened or endangered forest related vascular plants of the south. USFS technical publication R8-TP2, Atlanta, GA. Vol. 1: 718 pp.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Pyne, M. 1992. Guide to rare plants - Tennessee Division of Forestry District 3. Tennessee Dept. Agricluture, Division of Forestry, Nashville.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1994. Proposed threatened status for Helianthus eggertii (Eggert's sunflower). Federal Register 59(174): 46607-46611.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1997. Determination of threatened status for Helianthus eggertii (Eggert's sunflower). Federal Register 62(99): 27973-27978.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS. 1998. Technical/Agency Draft Recovery Plan for Helianithus eggertii Small (Eggert's Sunflower). Atlanta, Georgia. 23 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS. 2005. Removal of Helianthus eggertii (Eggert's Sunflower) from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Plants. Federal Register 70(159): 48482-48490.

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