Hazardia orcuttii - (Gray) Greene
Orcutt's Hazardia
Other English Common Names: Orcutt's bristleweed, Orcutt's goldenbush
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hazardia orcuttii (A. Gray) Greene (TSN 502882)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154810
Element Code: PDAST4H070
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Hazardia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hazardia orcuttii
Taxonomic Comments: Hazardia orcuttii has been reported to hybridize with H. ferrisiae and H. berberidis, both of which only occur in Mexico but not in the United States. The other Hazardia species that occurs in the United States, H. squarrosa, has recently been reported to hybridize with H. orcuttii (pers. comm. L. Washburn 2014). This species has been treated in Haplopappus by some authors.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Dec2008
Global Status Last Changed: 16May2005
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Hazardia orcuttii is a rare species and is known from one occurrence in Encintas, San Diego County, California and from 11 locations in Baja California, Mexico. The occurrence in California is located on the Manchester Preserve and is afforded protection and management there. Even with active management and monitoring this occurrence is still threatened due to its proximity to a housing development. The Preserve is used heavily by pedestrians who exercise or walk their dogs through the area. Threats include trampling by humans and by dog, trail widening, vandalism and other related threats due to human use of the land. The original occurrence in California was greatly reduced when the housing development went into place, and it continues to receive pressures from human use of the land. The occurrences in Baja California, Mexico are mostly historic, and only some have been relocated. Due to the tremendous urbanization pressures in Baja along the coast, it is suspected that some of these missing populations have been lost. Additional inventory in Baja California is needed.

Much research on the species biology is needed. Little to nothing is known about its reproductive mechanisms, germination requirements, seed viability, longevity, pollinators, dispersal, gene flow, and fire dependency; information which would help management and preservation practices.

In 2004, this species was made a candidate for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act. This species is afforded no protection in Mexico.

Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

Comments on USESA: Hazardia orcuttii was added to the USFWS candidate list in the May 4, 2004 Candidate Notice of Review. In the November 22, 2013 Candidate Notice of Review, Hazardia orcuttii was removed from the candidate list. "The conservation provided for Hazardia orcuttii and its habitat in the United States has removed the threat of habitat loss known at the time we made this species a candidate. Furthermore, given the existing protections and the low level of stressors currently affecting the species, we conclude that H. orcuttii no longer meets the definition of an endangered or threatened species under section 3 of the Endangered Species Act. We do not have any information to indicate that these stressors are likely to increase in the future; thus, the species is not likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. Therefore, we find that listing of H. orcuttii is not warranted, and we have removed it from candidate status." (USFWS 2013).
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This species is known from California and Baja California, Mexico. In California, the only site where it is known from Encinitas, San Diego County (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002, Burrascano 2000, Beauchamp 1986). This species is known from Baja California, Mexico from Ensenada (less than 100 miles south of Tijuana) to Punta Banda (Wiggins 1980). Wiggins 1980 reported that this species was endemic to Baja California, Mexico, but it was probably discovered in California after the publication of the Flora of Baja California. Another source gives a different range extent. Clark (1979) reports that the range in Baja is from Tijuana to Colonet. The entire range of this species extents along 280 km or 175 miles along the Pacific Coast from Encinitas, California to Colonet, Mexico (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). Finally, all but two occurrences are within three miles of the Pacific Ocean (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002).

Area of Occupancy: 3-500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: This species is known from one site in California and a small range in Baja California, Mexico. In California, it occurs in a parcel of land that is approximately 123 acres, but the species doesn't occur throughout the entire parcel (CNLM), but only on about 4 acres on a mesa-top near a residential community (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002).

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are 11 recently extant (2004) occurrences documented for this species; one extant occurrence is in California and ten are in Baja California, Mexico (Burrascano 2000, Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002, J. Kirker pers. comm.). Seventeen occurrences were known historically from Baja California, Mexico, all collected more than 30 years ago. The most recent collection of the species in Baja California, Mexico was in 1971 (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002), however, an attempt was made in late 2004 to relocate most of the Baja populations. Graduate student, J. Kirker, and other researchers attempted to relocate 13 of th 17 populations. Eight of the 13 were found and it is believed that the others not found no longer exist as the location information from the specimen labels included coordinates and a GPS was used to relocate them. Two other very small populations were discovered near roadsides during the research trip (pers. comm. J. Kirker).

Population Size Comments: The average population size of this species is difficult to determine as there is little information about its status in Baja California, Mexico, and because there is little historical population data in California due to its presence on private lands (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002).

When the occurrence in California was discovered and published in 1981 the population was described as 'a vigorous population of several hundred individuals' (Oberbauer 1981). In 1984, the site where H. orcuttii occurs was developed and nearly half of the occurrence was lost (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). The original intact population was estimated at 700 individuals. The 75-200 plants that occurred on private lands were transplanted into the Manchester Preserve, Encinitas, San Diego County (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). Only 70 of the transplanted plants survived (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002), however, there is some discrepency over the number of transplanted plants that persist. In 2000, the population size at Manchester Preserve was estimated at 350 individuals (this figure includes the naturally occurring plants 280-300 and the transplanted plants 50-70). In 2001, the population was estimated at 598 individuals. This increase is probably due to increased survey efforts (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). As of 2004, the land manager at the Manchester Preserve noted that some 150 additional plants were propagated and transplanted as the preserve (pers. comm. M. Speigelberg).

The average population size in Baja California, Mexico, is not known. Historically, this species may have been common or locally common in Baja. Clark 1979 says the following about H. orcuttii 'locally common in open habitats, coastal plains and hills from Colonet to Tijuana'. Another study, conducted in Punta Banda, Baja, noted that the species was 'common on flats' (Mulroy et al. 1979). In 2003, researcher J. Kirker visited an area in Punta Banda, Baja and H. orcuttii was found; one population visited was estimated at around 600 individuals while other populations observed consisted of one individual (pers. comm. J. Kirker). The California population contains about 600 plants.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few to few (1-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: The number of element occurrences with good viability is not clear for Hazardia orcuttii, since the viability of the Mexican populations hs not been fully determined, although three are relatively sizable. While the occurrence in California probably is viable over time, this is only because it is located in the Manchester Preserve, Encinitas, San Diego County. The Californian occurrence in the Manchester Preserve, is however, threatened by human recreation activities, fire and other human related activities due to its close proximity to a housing development (M. Speigelberg pers comm., C. Burrascano pers comm., J. Kirker pers. comm. Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002, Burrascano 2000). The occurrence in California would not be considered an 'A ranked' element occurrence due to the degradation by human activties. It is currently (5/2005) ranked "C" or Fair.

It is entirely possible that at least one occurrence in Baja California, Mexico still persists and would be considered to have 'good viability', but that hasn't been confirmed as of 2004. This is speculation based on the reports that H. orcuttii was once common on flats in Baja. Mulroy et al. 1979 report that Orcutt's hazardia is common on flats in Punta Banda, Baja California Mexico and that it looked to be forming hybrids with H. berberidis. In 2003, graduate student J. Kirker relocated at least one population in Punta Banda, Baja and noted that the occurrence she observed looked as if it might be forming hybrids with another Hazardia species. It is not clear whether J. Kirker was at one of the former sites researched by Mulroy et al. 1979, but her observations support that at least one population of H. orcuttii still persist in Baja. Additional Mexican occurrences were verified extant in 2004, but information on condition, threats, management, and viability was not provided by USFWS (2004).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Hazardia orcuttii is threatened by urbanization (CNPS 2001), and unauthorized access to the conservation area where the species is known from in California. In California, the only known occurrence of this species is some 400 ft east of a housing development and located in the Manchester Preserve (CNDDB 2004).

The threats this species face within the Manchester Conservation Area are: pedestrian trespass, creation of bicycle trails, non-native plants (USFWS 2004), and the local fire department use for practice drills (Burrascano pers. comm.).

The human related threats to H. orcuttii in the Manchester Conservation Area are numerous. The land is part of a conservation easement and won't be developed, however, the parcel of land is very close to a housing development and receives a lot of recreational use. Some 20-30 people a day use the Manchester Conservation Area for activities such as walking, running, dog-walking or running, and dirt biking/mountain biking (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). In addition, unauthorized use of the land for 'paint-ball' games has occurred in the past. Other signs that unauthorized use of the land occurs are the presence of beer cans and trash in the conservation area and vandalism of signs (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002).

The impacts of walking, biking and dog walking are widening of existing paths, erosion, trampling and soil compaction (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). Further, dog feces and urine have increased the nitrogen load in the soil and native plants growing in these dry habitats are not well adapted to growing in high levels of nitrogen (Burrascano 2000). The land manager for the conservation area has put up signs and fencing around nearly all of the H. orcuttii population (pers. comm. M. Speigelberg) to prevent dog and people related damage. Other efforts that the land manager has made include erecting an information kiosk that shows pictures of the plants and explains the need for their conservation. Signs are posted to keep dogs on the paths, however, many people disrespect the signs and let their dogs run loose anyway. Even though visitors let their dogs run loose the dogs stay on the trails more than before due to the delineation of the trails (pers. comm. M. Speigelberg). Unfortunately, even though there is much effort to educate the public about the sensitivity of the plants at the Manchester Conservation Area, the area isn't always respected. In the spring of 2004, kids in the conservation area ignited a fire, which thankfully, the fire department was able to extinguish (pers. comm. M. Speigelberg). If the fire had gotten out of hand, the entire population of H. orcuttii in California could have been destroyed by a single fire event.


Other threats that exist for this species in California are development to the surrounding area where H. orcuttii is in California, predation, competition from non-native species, natural stochastic events. Additional development around the Manchester Conservation Area would result in more habitat fragmentation, which could in turn affect the pollinators and their habitat, negatively affect the soil and soil seed banks, and could prevent seed dispersal and germination (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002).

Predation has been observed at the California occurrence where the smaller plants in the population were heavily grazed before the flowers had bloomed. It is suspected that rabbits may have been the predator (pers. comm. J. Kirker). Also observed was some insect parasitism to the flowers heads before seed was set (pers. comm. J. Kirker).

Competition by non-native plant species is a potential threat. The non-native species in the Manchester Conservation Area could compete with this species for light, water, nutrients, and space (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). H. orcuttii requires somewhat of an open area and many non-natives thrive in disturbed areas with little vegetation, which may suggest that non-natives and H. orcuttii could directly compete. Two non-native species in particular have been identified by Burrascano (2000) as competing with Orcutt's hazardia and they are Salsola tragus, Tumbleweed and Centaurea melitensis, Tocalote. Two non-native species, Brassica nigra, black mustard and Cortaderia sp., Pampas grass are also present and are a threat. The land manager at the Manchester Conservation Area is actively managing non-native plant species by manual removal and herbicide application (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). Other non-natives species that were not in the preserve as of 2002, but in the surrounding area and very close to the H. orcuttii population, and identified as potential threats, are Eucalyptus sp., Acacia sp., and Schinus molle (Peruvian pepper trees).

Finally, because there is only one occurrence in California in a relatively small area, it is subject to random events that could extirpate the entire population, such as fire, disease, insect infestation, or complete loss of pollinators (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). Other threats that small populations face are loss of genetic variation due to genetic drift, inbreeding depression or other genetic mechanisms.

The threats this species faces in Baja California, Mexico are not well documented. The greatest threat to this species in Mexico is urbanization (Burrascano 2000, Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). Much of the Pacific Coast line in Baja is being converted to resort areas for tourists. The most northern portion of the Baja coast is experiencing very heavy development pressure due to the close proximity to the United States and American tourists (Burrascano 2000). Researchers agree that the affects of urbanization in Baja in the past 15 years have affected H. orcuttii but the extent is not known (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). Finally, hybridization between H. orcuttii and other members of the genus occurring in Mexico but not in the United States, H. ferrisae and H. berberidis, in Baja are documented and could cause genetic degradation over time (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002).

In late 2004, research was conducted in Baja California, Mexico by graduate student J. Kirker and other researchers to relocate several populations from herbarium specimens. Seventeen voucher specimens were listed in Burrascano (2000) in Baja and attempts were made to find 13 of those. There were several reasons relocation of the other sites was not attempted and they include: insufficient coordinates or landmarks from label information, one was a duplicate, one was on an island, and the other was not feasible to get during the weekend research stint. Eight of the 13 sites were relocated. The sites where H. orcuttii was not relocated were all heavily grazed or developed. At one site, the land was clearly being used for agricultural purposes, so conversion of land for agricultural practices was a threat as well. Of the 8 populations relocated, only 3 were considered healthy and one site had a surveyors flag posted on it. Owners of the land said that it was going to be converted into a mission and auxillary facility. All other populations found were surrounded by cattle and grazed (pers. comm. J. Kirker 2004). Overall, grazing and habitat destruction are present threats to populations in Baja California, Mexico.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: The only occurrence in California was discovered in 1981 and was described as supporting hundreds of individuals (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). In 1984 half of the occurrence was destroyed by development (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). In 2001, the population was estimated at 598 individuals. This increase is probably due to increased survey efforts (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). As of 2004, the land manager at the Manchester Preserve noted that some 150 additional plants were propagated and transplanted in the preserve (pers. comm. M. Speigelberg).

In the years after the occurrence in California was significantly reduced by the housing development in 1984, the occurence was reported as declining. Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002 put the trend then succintly, "mortality due to human-related activities has been a consistent negative impact to the species over the past twenty years...In Rare Plants of San Diego County, Reiser (1996) noted that between 1986 and 1989 the remaining population was slowly declining due to substantial site degradation". Efforts are being made to retard habitat degradation at the Manchester Preserve (pers. comm. M. Speigelberg, Gogol-Prokurat and Osborned 2002), however, human related threats still persist.

Urbanization in Baja California, Mexico along the Pacific Coast is suspected to have negatively impacted this species there, however, the extent is not known (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: This species is declining long term, but the rate of decline in the past (beyond the past 20 years) is not well understood. In 1979, it described as common on flats in Punta Banda, Baja California Mexico (Mulroy et al.), locally common in open habitats coastal plains and hills from Colonet to Tijauna, Baja California Mexico (Clark 1979), however, in the past 20 years it is known to be declining due to habitat loss from urbanization (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). These short term trends are better understood than the long term trends.

Several factors that may affect the long term trend of this species are hybridization with congeners and potential pollinator shortages. In Baja California, Mexico it has been observed that this species was hybridizing with H. berberidis (Mulroy et al. 1979) and H. ferrisiae (Clark 1979). It has recently been reported to hybridize with H. squarrosa, the only other species of Hazardia', that occurs in the United States (pers. comm. L. Washburn 2014).  Hybridization can lead to outbreeding depression and genetic assimilation, ultimately resulting in local extinction (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002).

Another threat that could affect the long term decline of this species is loss of its pollinators. Small populations of plants may not attract pollinators that are required for the long term viability of the species (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborned 2002). Hazardia orcuttii's pollinators are not known and studies are needed to identify them, however, if H. orcuttii's populations continue to shrink they may not be attactive to pollinators. Another possibility is that the urbanization that is leading to the decline of this species is also causing the pollinators to decline, compounding the rate of long term decline.

Ultimately, hybridization and loss of pollinators may contribute to the decline of this species over the long term, but this is speculation. What is known is that urbanization and other human threats are leading to the decline of this species in the past 20 years.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Very little is known about the intrinsic vulnerability of Hazardia orcuttii. Studies on the reproductive requirements, including its pollinators, are needed, as well as studies about how long it takes for individuals to reach maturity. Information about seedling establishment is also needed (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). There have been some studies on seed germination by researchers at the Quail Botanic Gardens and the Rancho Sanata Ana Botanic Gardens and these have shown that seed germination is relatively low (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002, Burrascano 2000). None of the literature reviewed mentioned H. orcuttii's dispersal ability; presumably this is another area needing investigation.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Hazardia orcuttii is historically and presently restricted to the Pacific Coast line. Development in California and Baja California, Mexico along the coast has removed much potential habitat for this species, as noted by Gogol-Prokurat and Osborned 2002, thereby making its potential habitat scarce.

H. orcuttii appears to have certain ecological requirements, however, more study in this area is needed. This species inhabits the frost free zone within 8 miles from the Pacific Coast, is associated with the Diegan coastal sage scrub, mixed chapparal or southern maritime chaparral on coastal hills and mesas (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). Finally, since H. orcuttii is found in fire adapted chaparrell and therefore, it probably does possess the ability to resprout after fire, as H. squarrosa a close relative was found to exhibit resprouting after fire (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). It is also not known whether seeds of H. orcuttii are fire dependent for germination or whether germination is enhanced by a fire regime or whether fire has no affect on germination (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002); this maybe another aspect of this species' environmental specificity, but intensive studies are needed. The habitats it occurs in are frost-free and often associated with Diegan coastal sage scrub, mixed chaparral or southern maritime chaparral on coastal hills and mesas (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). Little else is known of this species' ecology. It seems to occur on clay soils and may be fire adapted.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This species is known from California and Baja California, Mexico. In California, the only site where it is known from Encinitas, San Diego County (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002, Burrascano 2000, Beauchamp 1986). This species is known from Baja California, Mexico from Ensenada (less than 100 miles south of Tijuana) to Punta Banda (Wiggins 1980). Wiggins 1980 reported that this species was endemic to Baja California, Mexico, but it was probably discovered in California after the publication of the Flora of Baja California. Another source gives a different range extent. Clark (1979) reports that the range in Baja is from Tijuana to Colonet. The entire range of this species extents along 280 km or 175 miles along the Pacific Coast from Encinitas, California to Colonet, Mexico (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002). Finally, all but two occurrences are within three miles of the Pacific Ocean (Gogol-Prokurat and Osborne 2002).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
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National Distribution Outside of U.S. & Canada: Mexico

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA San Diego (06073)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 San Luis Rey-Escondido (18070303)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Hazardia orcuttii is described as a resinous shrub 5-10 dm tall. Woody branches are few and open, glabrous and slightly resinous, leafy throughout. Leaves are sessile. The flower heads are radiate, racemose or paniculate. This species is in bloom August through September (Clark 1979).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Often in clay soils, within maritime Chaparral or Coastal Sage Scrub communities. 80 - 200 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Jun2004
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: L. Oliver (2004); rev. R. Bittman 5/2005 (minor), rev. L. Morse (2005), rev. R. Bittman 2006

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Beauchamp, R.M. 1986. A flora of San Diego County, California. Sweetwater River Press, California. 241 pp.

  • Burrascano, C. 2000. A petition of the state of California Fish and Game Commission for Hazardia orcuttii (Gray) Greene.

  • CalFlora. 2005. Information on California plants for education, research and conservation. Berkeley, California: The CalFlora Database [web application]. Available: http://www.calflora.org/. (Accessed 2005)

  • California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2001. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of California (sixth edition). Rare Plant Scientific Advisory Committee, David P. Tibor, Convening Editor. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. x + 388pp.

  • California Natural Diversity Database. 2004. Wildlife & Habitat Data Analysis Branch. Department of Fish and Game. RareFind 3. (May 2, 2004, Government Version).

  • Center for Natural Lands Management. Manchester Mitigation Bank. Online at: http://www.cnlm.org/manchmb.html. Accessed on May 24, 2004.

  • Clark, W. D. 1979. The taxonomy of Hazardia (Compositae: Asteraceae). Madrono 26(3):105-127.

  • Gogol-Prokurat, M. and M. Osborne. 2002. Report to the Fish and Game Commission on the status of Orcutt's Hazardia (Hazardia orcuttii). State of California, The Resources Agency, Habitat Consercation Planning Brank Status Report 2002-01.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Mulroy, T. W., R. W. Rundel and P. A. Bowler. 1979. The vascular flora of Punta Banda, Baja California Norte, Mexico. Madrono 26: 69-91.

  • Oberbauer, T. A. 1981. Noteworthy species Hazardia orcuttii. Madrono 28(1): 38.

  • Skinner, M.W., and B.M. Pavlik, eds. 1997 (1994). Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 1997 Electronic Inventory Update of 1994 5th edition, California Native Plant Society, Special Publication No. 1, Sacramento.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. Review of Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions. Federal Register 69 (86): 24875-24904.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form. Hazardia orcuttii. 11 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Review of Native SpeciesThat are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions. Federal Register 78(226): 70104-70162.

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