Halogeton glomeratus - (Bieb.) C.A. Mey.
Halogeton
Other English Common Names: Salt-lover
Other Common Names: saltlover
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Halogeton glomeratus (Bieb.) C.A. Mey. (TSN 20692)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.157500
Element Code: PDCHE0D010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Goosefoot Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Chenopodiaceae Halogeton
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Halogeton glomeratus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), Oregon (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Utah (SNA), Washington (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
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NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, IDexotic, MTexotic, NEexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, ORexotic, SDexotic, UTexotic, WAexotic, WYexotic

Range Map
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Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: High/Medium
Rounded I-Rank: High
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Halogeton glomeratus is established across the western U.S. It seems to be the most concentrated in the Great Basin Region, Mojave Desert, and northern Sierra Nevada. It is not an extremely competitive plant but can quickly invade disturbed or overgrazed sites and prevent the reestablishment of desirable species. Apparently it does not invade and extirpate native vegetation, but rather enters where there is little competition and then prevents native species from establishing. It occurs in salt-desert shrubland, big sagebrush, steppe types, and western juniper. Halogeton is thought to impact soil processes in several ways. Halogeton may permanently change soil surfaces via salt pumping which impedes moisture infiltration and enhances evaporation. High salts also inhibit micro-organisms aiding nitrification, which depresses plant growth. Halogeton produces high concentrations of oxalic acid and probably affects phosphorous availability in the soil. It may also cause increases in pH, magnesium, and electrical conductivity. Halogeton also has aggressive reproductive characteristics. A single large plant can produce more than 100,000 seeds and seeds may remain viable in the soli for 10 years. Halogeton is dispersed by animals, equipment, vehicles, and wind. Its characteristic of forming tumbleweeds aids its dispersal. Controlling extensive infestations of Halogeton glomeratus requires elimination or reduction of the disturbance that allowed it to invade and simultaneous reestablishment of competitive species. It is necessary to monitor and continue control measures on infestations at least once or twice per year for at least 10 consecutive years. More information is needed about trends in its distribution and abundance.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: High/Medium
I-Rank Review Date: 06Feb2004
Evaluator: Tomaino, A.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Native to southeastern Russia and northwestern China (Pavek 1992).

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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Established outside cultivation in the U.S. (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: In California, occurs on alkaline soils, open flats and shrubland (Baldwin et al. 2004). In Wyoming, occurs on dry hills and disturbed areas (Dorn 2001).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:High significance
Comments: Halogeton may permanently change soil surfaces via salt pumping which impedes moisture infiltration and enhances evaporation (Pavek 1992). Halogeton glomeratus produces high concentrations of oxalic acid and probably affects phosphorous availability in the soil (Kingsbury 1964; Whitson et al. 1996 in Dukes and Mooney 2003). Halogeton glomeratus increases the salinity of the topsoil, negatively impacting other plants, and promoting its own germination and establishment (Jenkins 2003). In Colorado, it was classified as affecting the availability of soil nutrients (APRS Implementation Team 2001). It was found to cause significant soil alteration: increases in pH, exchangeable sodium, potassium, magnesium, electrical conductivity, and decreases in water percolation (Pavek 1992). High salts inhibit micro-organisms aiding nitrification, which depresses plant growth (Pavek 1992).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Insignificant
Comments: Halogeton can quickly invade disturbed or over-grazed sites, and it can prevent the reestablishment of desirable species (Bossard et al. 2000). However, it does not establish in vigorous competing vegetation because it does not grow a large shoot or root system early in the growing season (Pavek 1992). It does not seem to change an existing community structure, because the community structure must be disturbed for it to invade.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Halogeton can quickly invade disturbed or over-grazed sites, and it can prevent the reestablishment of desirable species (Bossard et al. 2000). However, it does not establish in vigorous competing vegetation because it does not grow a large shoot or root system early in the growing season (Pavek 1992). Halogeton occurs as a dominant or codominant with other annuals (Pavek 1992). Apparently it does not invade and extirpate native vegetation, but rather enters where there is little competition and then prevents native species from reestablishing.

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Unknown

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Halogeton invades disturbed or over-grazed sites (Bossard et al. 2000). It does not establish in vigorous competing vegetation (Pavek 1992). However it does occur in salt-desert shrubland, big sagebrush, steppe types, and western juniper (Pavek 1992). At least some of these communities may be rare or of high quality, despite having some open or disturbed areas.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Established across the western U.S. from Washington, Oregon, and California, to Montana, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and New Mexico (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Moderate significance
Comments: Halogeton seems to be the most concentrated in the Great Basin Region, Mojave Desert, and northern Sierra Nevada; it also seems to be sporadically spread throughout Idaho, Colorado and Nevada (Jenkins 2003). In Washington and Oregon, it was listed in the category most invasive and widespread (WNPS 1997). Halogeton is found in the Rocky Mountain and Great Basin regions and in two disjunct infestations in Nebraska (Pavek 1992).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Medium/Low significance
Comments: At most 52% of units inferred from TNC (2001) and Kartesz (1999). At least 7% of units inferred from TNC (2001) and Kartesz (1999).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: It occurs in salt-desert shrubland, big sagebrush, steppe types, and western juniper (Pavek 1992).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:High/Low significance
Comments: Likely because of its threat to grazing animals, there seem to be a number of control efforts. However, it quickly invades disturbed areas (Bossard et al. 2000) and disturbed areas are not declining. It is presumed to be not declining.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Inferred from USDA (1990) and Kartesz (1999), 30-90% of its potential range in the U.S. is currently occupied.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High significance
Comments: Halogeton can be dispersed great distances by animals, since it is resistant to digestion, as well as by equipment and vehicles (Bossard et al. 2000). It forms tumbleweeds which can be dispersed for 2 miles by whirlwinds or dust-devils; local seed dispersal is also by wind (Bossard et al. 2000).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Low significance
Comments: Likely because of its threat to grazing animals, there seem to be a number of control efforts. However, it quickly invades disturbed areas (Bossard et al. 2000) and disturbed areas are not declining. It is presumed to be not declining.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: Halogeton can quickly invade disturbed or over-grazed sites (Bossard et al. 2000). It does not establish in vigorous competing vegetation because it does not grow a large shoot or root system early in the growing season (Pavek 1992). Apparently, Halogeton requires disturbance to invade.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Insignificant
Comments: Apparently, it is not known as an escape except in the region of interest.

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Moderate significance
Comments: A single large plant can produce more than 100,000 seeds and seeds may remain viable in the soil for 10 years (Bossard et al. 2000). It is an annual and reproduces only by seed (Bossard et al. 2000).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: High/Medium

17. General Management Difficulty:High significance
Comments: Controlling extensive infestations will require elimination or reduction of the disturbance that allowed halogeton to invade and simultaneous reestablishment of competitve species (Fenley 1952 in Bossard et al. 2000). Once seeds have been produced, it will be necessary to monitor and continue control measures on infestations at least once or twice each year for at least 10 consecutive years because seeds can remain viable in the soil for that length of time (Bossard et al. 2000). Because of the large numbers of seed produced, some of which may survive for 10 years or more in the soil, it is not practical to eradicate any population that has been in existence for 2 years or more; very small infestations can be eradicated if treated early (PPRL, not dated). Plants can be held in control by proper use of herbicdes (PPRL, not dated). The effects of many chemical control treatments were temporary (Bossard et al. 2000) and would need to be repeated. Herbicide control is too expensive to be used on low-production ranges on which halogeton occurs (Pavek 1992). Widespread herbicide control of halogeton was stopped because land managers did not have desirable forage to replace halogeton, especially on saline-alkaline soils (Pavek 1992). Because halogeton is a shallow-rooted annual, it can be controlled effectively by tillage or pulling; periodic mowing close to the ground can reduce but does not completely prevent seed production (Bossard et al. 2000).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:High significance
Comments: Once seeds have been produced, it will be necessary to monitor and continue control measures on infestations at least once or twice each year for at least 10 consecutive years because seeds can remain viable in the soil for that length of time (Bossard et al. 2000).

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Medium/Low significance
Comments: 2,4-D will kill 98% of Halogeton plants when applied in late May or early June, but it is not selective; extreme care must be taken when applying 2,4-D to protect broadleaf perennials (APRS Implementation Team). If other vegetation is depleted, the result will be further invasion by halogeton (APRS Implementation Team). Historically, 2,4-D was used at high concentrations to control halogeton, however, injury to native shrubs and lack of desirable forage species adapted to alkali conditions, resulted in reduced widespread 2,4-D use (Healy et al. 2000). Current recomendations include 2,4-D applied at lower concentrations to young plants in the spring prior to the bloom stage in conjunction with revegetation (Healy et al. 2000). Herbicides containing the incredient metsulfuron, effectively control more extensive infestations without causing injury to desirable grasses (Bossard et al. 2000).

Some of the herbicides used to control this species cause damage to native species. However, it seems that the use of these herbicides is now reduced or at lower concentrations and other herbicides which do not injure native speices are also being used. Still, it seems likely there are at least some impacts to native species.


20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Insignificant
Comments: Halogeton is a serious health threat to grazing animals, especially sheep which will be killed by 12 to 18 ounces of halogeton (Pavek 1992). Therefore, landowners would likely welcome control efforts.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Alien plants ranking system (APRS) Implementation Team. 2001a. Alien plants ranking system version 7.1. Southwest Exotic Plant Information Clearinghouse, Flagstaff, AZ. Online. Available: http://www.usgs.nau.edu/swepic/ (accessed 2004).

  • Baldwin, B.G., S. Boyd, B.J. Ertter, D.J. Keil, R.W. Patterson, T.J. Rosatti and D.H. Wilken. 2004.
    Jepson Flora Project, Jepson Online Interchange for California Floristics. Regents of the University of California, Berkeley. Online. Available: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/jepson_flora_project.html (Accessed 2004).

  • Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, and M. Hoshovsky. (eds.) 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

  • California Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1999. The CalEPPC List: Exotic Pest Plants of Greatest Ecological Concern in California. Available: http://groups.ucanr.org/ceppc/Pest_Plant_List/. (Accessed 2004).

  • Dorn, R. D. 2001. Vascular Plants of Wyoming. 3rd edition. Mountain West Publishing. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 412 pp.

  • Dukes, J. S., and H. A. Mooney. 2003. Biological invaders disrupt ecosystem processes in western North America (Disruption of ecosystem processes in western North America by invasive species). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, in press. Online. Available: http://globalecology.stanford.edu/DGE/Dukes/Dukes_Impacts.pdf (accessed 2004).

  • Healy, E. A., S. Enloe, and J.M. DiTomaso. 2000. Noxious Weed Data Sheet for Halogeton glomeratus. Non-Cropland Weed Group of the UC Cooperative Extension Service, Weed Science Program, Department of Vegetable Crops, University of California, Davis. Online. Available: http://pi.cdfa.ca.gov/weedinfo/HALOGETO2.htm (accessed 6, February 2004).

  • Jenkins, N. 2003. Vegetation web page for Halogeton glomeratus. Created for Plant Ecology Course, Biology 5460, taught by Jim Ehleringer, Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. Online. Available: http://ehleringer.net/Biology_5460/veg/topics/Halogetonglomerotus/Halofinal.html (accessed 6 February 2004).

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Halogeton glomeratus. In: Fire Effects Information System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Online. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ (accessed 6 February 2004).

  • Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL). No date. Plants Poisonous to Livestock in the Western States. Agriculture Information - Bulletin 415. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Online. Available: http://www.pprl.usu.edu/Poisonous_Plants.htm (accessed 2004).

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • USDA Agricultural Research Service. 1990. USDA Plants Hardiness Zone Map. Misc. Publ. Number 1475.

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