Hackelia venusta - (Piper) St. John
Showy Stickseed
Other English Common Names: Lesser Showy Stickseed
Other Common Names: lesser showy stickseed
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hackelia venusta (Piper) St. John (TSN 31920)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.128463
Element Code: PDBOR0G0T0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Borage Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Lamiales Boraginaceae Hackelia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hackelia venusta
Taxonomic Comments: This species was first described within the genus Lappula (annual plants) but later transferred to the genus Hackelia (perennial plants). Carr (1974) undertook a taxonomic study of the genus in western North America and recognized Hackelia venusta as a morphologically uniform, distinct species that exhibited little variability. A further taxonomic review (Harrod et al 1999) indicated that certain high elevation populations previously assigned to H. venusta were a distinct undescribed species, Hackelia taylori (Harrod et al. in review). Harrod and his colleagues (1999) further outline that no affinities exist between the low and high elevation taxon, nor with nearby populations of H. diffusa var. arida.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Sep2010
Global Status Last Changed: 01Jan1983
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Hackelia venusta is a narrow endemic restricted to one small population on less than 1 hectare (2.5 acres) of unstable, granitic talus on the lower slopes of Tumwater Canyon, Chelan County, Washington (USFWS, 2002).
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Washington (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (06Feb2002)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R1 - Pacific

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This speices is known from one location only in Chelan County, Washington.

Area of Occupancy: 1-5 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Since an intensive survey in2004, the population is known to exist on approximately 16 hectares or 40 acres (USFWS 2007).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is known from only one population in Chelan County, Washington. Taxonomic work at other populations at higher elevations, previously considered as Hackelia venusta, are now known as a proposed new (and rare) species, Hackelia taylori (Harrod et al 1999). Other known Hackelia locations investigated in the field or with herbarium specimens have been determined not to be H. venusta. Thus the original discovery site at Tumwater Canyon is the only location for the species (USFWS 2002, Guerrant 2010).

Population Size Comments: In 2004, the population estimate was between 572-772 individuals within the known population area. In 2010, Joe Arnett (pers. comm.) noted the numbers as consistent or lower than previous years.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: The one known population of Hackelia venusta is ranked as good estimated viability.

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Major threats include: increased shading from native trees and shrubs, fire suppression, non-native plants, landslides, and human disturbance from collection or trampling. Reproductive vigour is limited with the small population size and gene pool. The species also has small seed output and low seedling survivorship. A single stochastic event, either natural- or human-caused, could destroy a significant part of the population (USFWS 2002). Highway maintenance activities, such as the spreading of sand or salt, and the use of de-icers can threaten the species, but are being carefully monitored and studied.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: A downward trend has been documented since 1968 when the species was noted as occurring on a few hundred acres. As outlined in the Recovery Plan (USFWS 2007): in 1981, approximately 1000 plants were noted over an area of 3.5 hectares (8 acres). In 1984 and 1987, fewer than 400 plants were located in an area of 5 hectares (12 acres). In 1995, fewer than 150 individuals were found growing on less than 1 hectare (2.5 acres). In 1996, the 1995 area of occupancy was once again reduced with a decline in number of individuals. Since the late 1990s, the population has been regularly monitored. In 2000, nearly 300 plants were counted over 4 hectares (10 acres) with this number increased to 500 plants over the same area in 2001. In 2004, an intensive search revealed nine additional small clusters of plants, bringing the estimated number of the population between 572-772 plants. In 2010, the population is estimated the same (Arnett, pers. comm. 2010). The Recovery Plan (USFWS 2007) estimates that a minimum viable population size for this species would be at least 1000 plants. Variability in observed numbers indicates both decline in numbers of plants and area of occupancy, but also indicates increased search effort and monitoring.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Individual plants are known to live at least 10 years but have low rates of viable seed production, germination and seedling establishment (USFWS 2007).

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Hackelia venusta is a highly specialist species. It is shade intolerant and grows only within an early successional habitat on low elevation talus slopes.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This speices is known from one location only in Chelan County, Washington.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States WA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
WA Chelan (53007)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Wenatchee (17020011)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Hackelia venusta is a moderately stout perennial plant, 20-40 cm (8-16 inches) tall, with numerous flowering stems arising from a slender taproot. Large showy flowers are white or white washed with blue, with five lobes topping the end of a short corolla tube. Flowering occurs in April or May. Leaves are basal and numerous on the flowering stem. The fruit consists of four prickly nutlets which drop near the plant but the spurred fruit can be dispersed by clinging to the hair of passing animals (USFWS 2007).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Cliff, Forest - Conifer, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Hackelia venusta grows in openings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests on loose, well-drained, granitic rocky or sandy soils. It is found on unstable talus slopes, and ledges or cracks on cliff faces at lower elevations (470-820 meters or 1550-2700 feet).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: The Recovery Plan of Hackelia venusta, as approved and posted late 2007, provided the 1140th species in the United States to be covered by a recovery plan (Schwartz 2008). The first step, as outlined in the Recovery Plan, is to protect, manage, and increase the single known population (USFWS 2007). A 1000 individuals is identified as the minimum size for a viable population. Through regular monitoring; additional research in survival, seed production, germination, recruitment and the re-establishment of populations within the estimated historical range of the species; removal and reduction of threats; cooperation between official agencies (such as for highway maintenance) and the recreational user - the recovery goal of downlisting this species can hopefully be achieved.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Sep2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Roth, E., rev. E. Joyal, rev. Gamon/Maybury (1996), rev. L. Morse/D. Gries (1997), rev. G. Davis (2000), rev. M. Anions 2010
Management Information Edition Date: 29Sep2010
Management Information Edition Author: M. Anions
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 29Sep2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): MORSE, LARRY E., rev. M. Anions

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Carr, R.A. 1974. A taxonomic study in genus Hackelia in western North America. Ph.D. Dissertation, Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon. 139p.

  • Gentry, J.L., Jr., and R.L. Carr. 1976. A revision of the genus Hackelia (Boraginaceae) in North America, north of Mexico. Memoirs New York Botanical Garden 26(1): 121-227.

  • Guerrant, E. No date. Center for Plant Conservation National Collection Plant Profile: Hackelia venusta. Online. http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/ASP/CPC_ViewProfile.asp?CPCNum=2109 (Accessed 2005).

  • Guerrant, E. 2010. Centre for Plant Conservation National Collection Plant Profile: Hackelia venusta. Updated Profile 3/4/2010. Online (www.centreforplantconservation.org). Accessed 23 Sept 2010.

  • Harrod, R.J., L.A. Malmquist, and R.L. Carr. 1999. A review of the taxonomic status of Hackelia venusta (Boraginaceae). Rhodora 101(905):16-27.

  • Harrod, R.J., L.A. Malmquist, and R.L. Carr. 2013. Hackelia taylori (Boraginaceae), a new species from north central Washington state (U.S.A.). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 7(2):649-657.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Schwartz, M.W. 2008. The performance of the Endangered Species Act. Annu. Rev. Evol. Syst. 39:279-299.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2002. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: Determination of endangered status for the Washington plant, Hackelia venusta (Showy Stickseed). Federal Register 67(25):5515-5525. February 6, 2002.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2007. Recovery plan for Hackelia venusta (Showy Stickseed). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon. xii + 60 pages.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. February 14, 2000. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: proposed endangered status for the plant Hackelia venusta (showy stickseed). Federal Register Vol. 65, No. 30: 7339-7346.

  • Washington Natural Heritage Program. 1994. Endangered, threatened and sensitive vascular plants of Washington. Dept. of Natural Resources, Olympia, Washington. 52 pp.

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