Hasteola suaveolens - (L.) Pojark.
Sweet-scented Indian-plantain
Other English Common Names: False Indian-plantain
Other Common Names: false Indian plantain
Synonym(s): Cacalia suaveolens L. ;Senecio suaveolens (Linnaeus) Elliot ;Synosma suaveolens (L.) Raf. ex Britt.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154882
Element Code: PDASTDX010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Hasteola
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hasteola suaveolens
Taxonomic Comments: Treated in most references as Cacalia suaveolens; the Florida plants have recently been treated as the separate species Hasteola robertiorum, with H. suaveolens (=Synosma suaveolens) occurring only northward (see L.C. Anderson, Syst. Bot. 19: 211-219, 1994); this change happened too recently to be addressed in the 1994 Kartesz checklist but is accepted by Kartesz in his 1999 Floristic Synthesis, in which Kartesz treats both of these species in the genus Hasteola, rather than Synosma (or Cacalia). The genus name Cacalia was recommended for nomenclatural rejection by the Committee on Spermatophyta (Taxon 47: 444, 1998), due to its history of varied and contradictory usage; thus all plants formerly classified in Cacalia must now be reclassified into other genera.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 02Oct2006
Global Status Last Changed: 02Oct2006
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Synosma suaveolens is widely but irregularly distributed in the eastern United States, yet rare or uncommon in all states in its range. However, it is declining due to habitat loss, as well as habitat degradation due to invasive exotic plants.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (S1), District of Columbia (S1), Illinois (S2S3), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S2), Kentucky (SNR), Maryland (S1), Massachusetts (SNA), Minnesota (S1), Missouri (S3), New Jersey (SX.1), New York (S1), North Carolina (S1), Ohio (S4), Pennsylvania (S4), Rhode Island (SH), Tennessee (S2), Virginia (S2), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Connecticut to southern Minnesota south to North Carolina and Missouri. Introduced in Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Anderson, 1994). North Carolina and Virginia populations are disjunct from the rest of the range (Sutherland, 1988).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Rare in all states in its range. Of 60 ranked Element Occurrence Records, 12% are A-ranked, 12% AB, 20% B, 37% C, 27% D (ranks, however, were assigned by individual states and do not necessarily follow RANKSPECS).

Population Size Comments: Covers many miles of river bank area and is sufficiently abundant in Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania to remain untracked or be de-listed as a sensitive species.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Both loss of habitat and environmental degradation threaten Synosma suaveolens (Coffin and Pfannmuller, 1988); i.e. threats to water quality and especially weedy invasion.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Declining due to habitat loss. Midwestern riverbanks also typically threatened by invasive exotic plants, leading to reduction in quality of remaining occurrences.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Certain habitat types for Synosma suaveolens can be fragile, e.g. calcareous fen.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Connecticut to southern Minnesota south to North Carolina and Missouri. Introduced in Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Anderson, 1994). North Carolina and Virginia populations are disjunct from the rest of the range (Sutherland, 1988).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, DC, IA, IL, IN, KY, MAexotic, MD, MN, MO, NC, NJextirpated, NY, OH, PA, RI, TN, VA, WI, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Fairfield (09001)*, New Haven (09009)
IA Allamakee (19005)*, Benton (19011)*, Bremer (19017), Butler (19023), Cedar (19031)*, Chickasaw (19037), Clinton (19045)*, Delaware (19055)*, Fayette (19065), Floyd (19067)*, Howard (19089), Jackson (19097), Jones (19105), Louisa (19115), Mitchell (19131), Muscatine (19139), Scott (19163)*, Washington (19183), Winneshiek (19191)
MD Allegany (24001), Cecil (24015)*, Frederick (24021), Garrett (24023)*, Harford (24025), Montgomery (24031), Washington (24043)
MN Fillmore (27045), Houston (27055), Mower (27099), Olmsted (27109), Wabasha (27157)
NC Buncombe (37021)*, Henderson (37089), Transylvania (37175)*
NJ Mercer (34021)*, Middlesex (34023)*
NY Cattaraugus (36009), Chenango (36017), Livingston (36051), Monroe (36055)*, Tioga (36107)*
OH Adams (39001), Ashtabula (39007), Athens (39009), Champaign (39021), Clark (39023), Fayette (39047), Gallia (39053), Greene (39057), Hocking (39073), Jackson (39079), Lake (39085), Morgan (39115), Pickaway (39129)*, Ross (39141), Scioto (39145), Shelby (39149), Stark (39151), Tuscarawas (39157), Warren (39165)
TN Cheatham (47021), Dickson (47043), Hickman (47081), Humphreys (47085), Lawrence (47099), Lewis (47101), Montgomery (47125), Perry (47135), Stewart (47161), Wayne (47181)
VA Appomattox (51011), Campbell (51031), Carroll (51035), Clarke (51043), Fairfax (51059), Loudoun (51107), Montgomery (51121), Pulaski (51155)
WV Berkeley (54003), Greenbrier (54025)*, Hancock (54029)*, Mercer (54055)*, Monongalia (54061)*, Ohio (54069)*, Pleasants (54073)*, Preston (54077), Randolph (54083), Ritchie (54085)*, Tucker (54093)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Quinnipiac (01100004)+, Housatonic (01100005)+*
02 Raritan (02030105)+*, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+*, Chenango (02050102)+, Owego-Wappasening (02050103)+*, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+, Shenandoah (02070007)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+, Monocacy (02070009)+
03 Middle Roanoke (03010102)+
04 Grand (04110004)+, Lower Genesee (04130003)+, Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)+*
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Upper Monongahela (05020003)+*, Cheat (05020004)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+*, Upper Ohio (05030101)+*, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)+*, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+*, Little Kanawha (05030203)+*, Hocking (05030204)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Upper New (05050001)+, Middle New (05050002)+*, Greenbrier (05050003)+*, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Paint (05060003)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Little Miami (05090202)+, Harpeth (05130204)+, Lower Cumberland (05130205)+
06 Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Lower Duck (06040003)+, Buffalo (06040004)+
07 Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Zumbro (07040004)+, Root (07040008)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Maquoketa (07060006)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+*, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+*, Skunk (07080107)+, Upper Cedar (07080201)+, West Fork Cedar (07080204)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+, Lower Iowa (07080209)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Plant, dicot, Asteraceae. Senecioid, glabrous, rhizomatous herb with many-flowered head inflorescences (flowers white, rarely pink) and hastate basal leaves.
Habitat Comments: Low, moist ground; in rich floodplain forests, thickets, or clearings and in calcareous fens. Occasionally on calcareous bluffs.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Oct1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: S.L.Neid, MRO (1997), rev. L. Morse (2000)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21May2001
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): KLC

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Anderson, L. C. 1994. A revision of Hasteola (Asteraceae) in the New World. Systematic Botany 19:211-219.

  • Anderson, L.C. 2006. Hasteola Rafinesque Pages 610 - 611 in Flora of North America Committee (editors). 2006. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 20. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae (in part): Asteraceae, part 2. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Coffin, B., and L. Pfannmuller, editors. 1988. Minnesota's endangered flora and fauna. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 473 pp.

  • Coffin, B., and L. Pfannmuller, editors. 1988. Minnesota's endangered flora and fauna. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 473 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed., Corr. Printing, 1970. Van Nostrand, New York. LXIV+1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006. Flora of North America, vol. 20 Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, Part 7: Asteraceae, Part 2. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 666 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 20. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 7: Asteraceae, part 2. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxii + 666 pp.

  • Gleason, H. A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Second Edition. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Accepted taxon names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Medley, M.E. 1993. An annotated catalog of the known or reported vascular flora of Kentucky. PhD. dissertation. University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.

  • Mitchell, Richard S. and Gordon C. Tucker. 1997. Revised Checklist of New York State Plants. Contributions to a Flora of New York State. Checklist IV. Bulletin No. 490. New York State Museum. Albany, NY. 400 pp.

  • Nekola, J. C. 1990. Rare Iowa plant notes from the R. V. Drexler Herbarium. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Sciences 97(1):55-73.

  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles, and C. R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 1183 pp.

  • Sharp, P. P. 2000. Conservation and Research Plan, Hasteola suaveolens (L.) Pojark., Sweet Indian Plantain. New England Wildflower Society, Framingham, Massachusetts.

  • Sutherland. 1988. Atlas of Rare and Endangered Plant Species in North Carolina. North Carolina Plant Conservation Program.

  • Tatnall, R.R. 1946. Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. Soc. Nat. Hist. Del. 313 pp.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2011. Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Working Draft of 15 May 2011. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU), North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (Accessed 2012).

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://wwws.nyflora.org/, Albany, New York

  • Zaremba, Robert E. 1991. Corrections to phenology list of April 9, 1991.

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