Gymnocladus dioicus - (L.) K. Koch
Kentucky Coffeetree
Other Common Names: Kentucky coffeetree
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) K. Koch (TSN 502851)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.151008
Element Code: PDFAB1X010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pea Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fabales Fabaceae Gymnocladus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Gymnocladus dioicus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16May1984
Global Status Last Changed: 16May1984
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5?
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2 (14Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S4), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S5), Maine (SNA), Maryland (S1), Massachusetts (SNA), Michigan (S3S4), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (S1S2), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (SNR), New Jersey (SNA), New York (S1), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (SNR), Pennsylvania (S4), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S2), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Virginia (S3), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (S2)
Canada Ontario (S2)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: T (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Threatened (01Nov2000)
Comments on COSEWIC: An uncommon species in North America restricted in Canada to about 25 occurrences within southwestern Ontario. There individual trees or small scattered groups, primarily of single sex clones, survive with limited sexual reproduction and under threats from habitat degradation.

Designated Threatened in April 1983. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2000.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DEexotic, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MAexotic, MD, MEexotic, MI, MN, MO, MS, NCexotic, ND, NE, NJexotic, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MD Allegany (24001)*, Anne Arundel (24003)*, Baltimore County (24005)*, Garrett (24023)*, Harford (24025), Washington (24043)
MN Blue Earth (27013), Brown (27015), Carver (27019), Dakota (27037), Faribault (27043), Goodhue (27049), Hennepin (27053)*, Houston (27055), Kandiyohi (27067), Le Sueur (27079), Mower (27099), Nicollet (27103), Olmsted (27109)*, Ramsey (27123), Redwood (27127), Renville (27129), Rice (27131), Scott (27139), Sibley (27143), Wabasha (27157), Waseca (27161), Washington (27163), Winona (27169)*, Yellow Medicine (27173)
MS Chickasaw (28017), Coahoma (28027), Tishomingo (28141), Tunica (28143)
NY Cayuga (36011), Ontario (36069), Tompkins (36109)
SD Clay (46027)*, Lincoln (46083), Union (46127)
WI Crawford (55023), Dodge (55027)*, Grant (55043), Green (55045), Richland (55103), Waukesha (55133), Winnebago (55139)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+, Severn (02060004)+*, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+*, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+
03 Tibbee (03160104)+
04 Lake Winnebago (04030203)+, Milwaukee (04040003)+, Lower Genesee (04130003)+, Seneca (04140201)+
06 Pickwick Lake (06030005)+
07 South Fork Crow (07010205)+, Twin Cities (07010206)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Redwood (07020006)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Cottonwood (07020008)+, Blue Earth (07020009)+, Le Sueur (07020011)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Cannon (07040002)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Trempealeau (07040005)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Root (07040008)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Upper Rock (07090001)+*, Sugar (07090004)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+
08 Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100)+
10 Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+*, Vermillion (10170102)+*, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
Help
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Ambrose, J.D. 1982. Status Report on Gymnocladus dioica (Leguminosae): A Rare Canadian Tree Species. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa. 26 pp.

  • Ambrose, J.D. 1983. Status report on Kentucky Coffee Tree, GYMNOCLADUS DIOICA. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 27 pp.

  • Ambrose, J.D. 1984. Why is Kentucky Coffee Tree rare in Canada?. The Plant Press 2(3):70-71.

  • Ambrose, J.D. and C.K. Carey. 1987. GYMNOCLADUS DIOICA in Canada: the biology of a rare tree at its northern limits of distribution. Abstract. XIV International Biological Congress, Berlin. 1 pp.

  • Ambrose, J.D., S. Managhan, and C. Allsop. 1989. A proposal to enhance the conservation status of GYMNOCLADUS DIOICA (Kentucky Coffee Tree) in Essex County, Ontario. Unpublished proposal. 4 pp.

  • Ambrose, J.D., and P.G. Kevan. n.d. Reproductive biology of rare Carolinian plants with regard to conservation management. not known. 57-63 pp.

  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Ball, J. and R. Kisor. 1985. Acid Scarification Requirements of Kentucky Coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) K. Koch) Seeds from Southcentral Minnesota. Tree Planters' Notes. 23 pp.

  • Barlow, C. 2001. Ghost stories from the ice age: some plants are haunted by large mammals from another era. Natural History 110:62-67.

  • Brodribb, K.E., and M.J. Oldham. 2000. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E Species Evaluation Form for Kentucky Coffee-tree (Gymnocladus dioica). Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario (October 2000). 5 pp. + appendices.

  • Butwick, A.N. 1987. Kentucky Coffee Tree GYMNOCLADUS DIOICA (Leguminosae). Wood Duck (Newsletter of the Hamilton Naturalists' Club) 40(9):149-150.

  • Edwards, J. 1980. A preliminary life science inventory of Peche Island Provincial Park. OMNR, Southwestern Region, Chatham District. OFER 8010. ii + 15 pp.

  • Fox, W.S. and J.H. Soper. 1953. The Distribution of some trees and shrubs of the Carolinian Zone of Southern Ontario. Part 2. Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute 30(Part 1): 3-32.

  • Geneve, R.L., S.T. Kester, and S. El-Shall. 1990. In Vitro Shoot Initiation in Kentucky Coffeetree. HortScience 25(5). p.578.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Isely, D. 1998. Native and naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States. Brigham Young University Press, Provo, Utah. 1,007 pp.

  • Janzen, D.H. 1976. Effect of Defoliation on Fruit-bearing Branches of Kentucky Coffee Tree, Gymnocladus dioicus (Leguminosae). The American Midland Naturalist 95(2). 474-478 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kozlowski, T.T. and R.C. Ward. 1957. Seasonal Height Growth of Deciduous Trees. Forest Science 3(2). 168-174 pp.

  • Limbird, A., E. Hamilton, and D. Prestone. 1980. Soil-site characteristics of Kentucky Coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioica) communities near Lake Erie. Canadian Field-Naturalist 94(2):139-147.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Minnesota County Biological Survey. 2007. Native plant communities and rare species of the Minnesota River Valley counties. Division of Ecological Resources, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul.  153 pp.

  • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2005. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota: the eastern broadleaf forest province. Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota. 394 pp.

  • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2005. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota: the prairie parkland and tallgrass aspen parklands provinces. Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota. 362 pp.

  • Morrison, J. 1900. The Kentucky Coffee Tree. Ottawa Naturalist 14(6):118-119.

  • NatureServe. 2009. NatureServe Explorer: an online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. <http://www.natureserve.org/explorer>.  Accessed 26 June 2009.

  • Oldham, M.J. 1996. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E Species Evaluation Form - Kentucky Coffee-tree (Gymnocladus dioica). Unpublished report, Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 5 pp. [31 May 1996]

  • Rhoads, Ann F. and Timothy A. Block. 2005. Trees of Pennsylvania. A Complete Reference Guide. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Smith, M.A.L. and A.A. Obeidy. 1991. Micropropagation of Mature, Male Kentucky Coffeetree. HortScience 26(11). p. 1426.

  • Smith, W. R. 2008. Trees and shrubs of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 703 pp.

  • Sutherland, D.A. 1987. The Vascular Plants of Haldimand-Norfolk. Pages 1-52 in The Natural Areas Inventory of the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk - Volume II: Annotated Checklists. Norfolk Field Naturalists, Simcoe, Ontario.

  • Thompson, R.J. 1992. Status Report, GYMNOCLADUS DIOICA, Kentucky Coffee Tree. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Simcoe. Unpublished report. 12 pp.

  • Varga, S. 1986. Vegetation Inventory of Backus Woods. Report Submitted to the Backus Woods Management Committee. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Ontario Heritage Foundation. 190 pp.

  • Warmund, M.R., W.A. Geyer, and C.E. Long. 1983. Preemergent Herbicides for Direct Seeding Kentucky Coffeetree, Honeylocust, and Black Locust. Tree Planters' Notes. 24-27 pp.

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://wwws.nyflora.org/, Albany, New York

  • White, D.J. and M.J. Oldham. 2000. COSEWIC Status Report Update on Kentucky Coffee-Tree (Gymnocladus dioicus). COSEWIC. 1-8 pp.

  • Yeiser, J.L. 1983. Germinative Pretreatments and Seedcoat Impermeability for the Kentucky Coffeetree. Tree Planters' Notes. 33-35 pp.

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