Gouania hillebrandii - Oliver ex Hbd.
Hairy-fruit Chewstick
Other Common Names: hairyfruit chewstick
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Gouania hillebrandii Oliver ex Hbd. (TSN 28543)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.136200
Element Code: PDRHA07060
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Buckthorn Family
Image 117030

© G. D. Carr

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Rhamnales Rhamnaceae Gouania
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Gouania hillebrandii
Taxonomic Comments: GENUS PANTROPICAL, SPECIES ENDEMIC TO HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. THE NOMENCLATURAL HISTORY IS COMPLICATED, WAGNER ET AL. ARE MAINTAINING THIS SPECIES NAME & HAVE SYNONYMIZED THE FOLLOW- ING SPP. W/ THIS ONE: G. PILATA, LYDGATEI, FAURIEI, MANNII.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Aug1990
Global Status Last Changed: 07Aug1990
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This species has been recorded from the islands of Molokai, Maui, Lanai, and Kahoolawe. Currently, it is known to be extant only on Molokai and Maui, with 6 occurrences containing fewer than 3,000 plants. The species and its habitats are threatened by cattle, feral goats and pigs, and the invasion of alien plant species. Fire is also a potential threat.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Hawaii (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (09Nov1984)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R1 - Pacific

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Current populations from Maui and Molokai. Historical records from Lanai and Kahoolawe.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Five current (between 1982 and 1997) and seven historical occurrences.

Population Size Comments: Unknown. Estimate several thousands of plants.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat alteration and destruction by feral and domestic animals, infestation by Hibiscus snow scale, fires, and alien plant species.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Fragility unknown.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Current populations from Maui and Molokai. Historical records from Lanai and Kahoolawe.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States HI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
HI Maui (15009)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
20 Maui (20020000)+, Kahoolawe (20030000)+*, Molokai (20050000)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An erect to sprawling shrub. Stems are 2-20 dm long. Small flowers have a sweet, strong fragrance.
General Description: A shrub up to 2 m tall with branches covered with a rust- or ash-colored fuzz. Leaves are oval or oblong in shape, entire, dark green, fuzzy and pale below, thin and somewhat papery. Flowers are quite small and nearly white, quite fragrant, and borne on short fuzzy branching flower stalks. Flower stalks bear 3 to 5 flowers each. The tiny brown seeds are in small, 3-winged capsules that are covered with soft white fuzz.
Technical Description: "Erect to sprawling shrubs, forming clumps; stems 2-20 dm long, densely pale to brown pilose. Leaves chartaceous to somewhat coriaceous, broadly to narrowly elliptic or occasionally obovate-elliptic or lanceolate, blades 1.4-6.5 cm long, 0.8-4 cm wide, upper surface glabrate, lower surface sparsely to densely appressed pilose, less so with age, margins entire, apex short-acuminate, acute, or obtuse to rounded, in the latter 2 cases mucronate to emarginate, base rounded to broadly cuneate, petioles (0.4-)0.7-4 cm long, densely white pilose, stipules linear-lanceolate, 2-5(-8) mm long, caducous to somewhat persistent. Flowers with a strong sweet fragrance, perfect and staminate (the plants apparently andromonoecious), the staminate flowers borne laterally to the central perfect ones, in axillary cymes 15-50 mm long, without tendrils, appressed pilose throughout, peduncles (2-)6-40 mm long, pedicels 1-7 mm long, bracts deltate, 2(-3) mm long; sepals 1.5-2.5 mm long, densely pilose; petals white, ca. 0.6-1.5 mm long, each one enclosing a stamen; ovary abortive in staminate flowers; style 3-lobed. Fruit 4-11 mm long, densely appressed white puberulent, 3-winged, the wings 1.5-3.5 mm wide, extending throughout the fruit, but tapering slightly toward base. Seeds brown, glossy, narrowly ellipsoid, 3.5-4 mm long." (Wagner et al., 1990)
Diagnostic Characteristics: Fruit densely appressed white puberulent, 3-winged, the wings 1.5-3.5 mm wide; peduncles (2-)6-40 mm long. (Wagner et al., 1990)
Duration: PERENNIAL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Hardwood
Habitat Comments: Dry to moist shrublands and forests. Ridgetops and gulch slopes.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Aug1987
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: KMS
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10Jul1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Hillebrand, W.F. 1888. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands: a description of their phanerogams and vascular cryptogams. Facsimile ed., 1981. Lubrecht & Cramer, Monticello, NY. 673 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • St. John, H. 1969. Monograph of the Hawaiian species of Gouanaia (Rhamnaceae). Hawaiian plant studies 34. Pacific Sci. 23: 507-543.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1984. Final rule to list Gouania hillebrandii as an endangered species and to designate its critical habitat. Federal Register 49(219): 44753-44757.

  • Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, and S.H. Sohmer. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Univ. Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1853 pp.

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