Glechoma hederacea - L.
Ground-ivy
Other English Common Names: Gill-Over-The-Ground
Other Common Names: ground ivy
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Glechoma hederacea L. (TSN 502801) ;Glecoma hederacea Linnaeus (TSN 32501)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.143722
Element Code: PDLAM0K010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mint Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Lamiales Lamiaceae Glechoma
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Glechoma hederacea
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (07Sep2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNA), Alaska (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNR), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Florida (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Labrador (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AKexotic, ALexotic, ARexotic, CAexotic, CO, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, FLexotic, GA, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MOexotic, MSexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NDexotic, NEexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SCexotic, SDexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, LBexotic, MBexotic, NBexotic, NFexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Low
Rounded I-Rank: Low
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Glechoma hederacea is most often found in frequently disturbed areas. However, it can be very persistent (even if no further disturbance occurs) and can prevent reestablishment of natives in some situations (e.g. woodlot understories). It occurs throughout the U.S. but is not linked to any long-term ecological damage. Harsh herbicide treatment may be required to achieve complete eradication.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Medium/Low
I-Rank Review Date: 25Sep2007
Evaluator: Fellows, M., minor rev. K. Gravuer
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Eurasia (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Moist woods and disturbed habitats (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Also pastures, roadsides and lawns (Radford 1968).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: There are no reports of ecosystem effects, therefore a low or insignificant rank is inferred.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Low significance
Comments: May form large patches around habitations (Rolan 1983). In woodland understories, may grow taller than many native species (D. Taylor pers. comm. 2007).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Medium/Low significance
Comments: A moderately successful competitor (APRS 2001). Can be highly persistent once established; in a 25-year-old woodlot (not disturbed for 15 years), carpeted the ground and prevented reestablishment of spring wildflowers (D. Taylor pers. comm. 2007).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: No reports of disproportionate impacts were found in the literature.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Low significance
Comments: Moist woods and disturbed habitats (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Also pastures, roadsides and lawns (Radford 1968). Thrives where there is disturbance, but can also be highly persistent once established if no further disturbance occurs (D. Taylor pers. comm. 2007).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Throughout the U.S. including Alaska, but not including NV, AZ, NM nor HI (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No states listed noxious (Kartesz 1999), although several list it as common (e.g. West Virginia (Strausbaugh and Core 1978).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High significance
Comments: Potentially in more than 47 ecoregions - inferred from Kartesz (1999) and TNC (2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Moist woods and disturbed habitats (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Also pastures, roadsides and lawns (Radford 1968).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Can be very invasive, even in non-disturbed sites, therefore inferred to be expanding, but not quickly.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Already occupies much of the US (Kartesz 1999).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Low significance
Comments: It is characterized as having little potential for long-distance dispersal at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (APRS 2001).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Low significance
Comments: Can be very invasive, even in non-disturbed sites, therefore inferred to be expanding, but not quickly.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Moist woods and disturbed habitats (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Also pastures, roadsides and lawns (Radford 1968). Plants for a Future (2000) characterizes Glechoma hederacea as a very invasive plant. Thrives where there is disturbance, but can also be highly persistent once established if no further disturbance occurs (D. Taylor pers. comm. 2007).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Low significance
Comments: Southern Canada (Kartesz 1999), but listed from the same habitat types (Rolan 1983). Argentina, Wales, China, Japan, Spain, Turkey (Plants for a Future 2000).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Moderate significance
Comments: Stolons and rhizomes are present (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Rooting may occur at nodes (Radford 1968). Plants for a Future (2000) characterizes Glechoma hederacea as a very invasive plant. "Any plant part is a viable propagule" (APRS 2001). Produces 11-1000 seeds/per plant/ per year, although this may not be all at once (APRS 2001).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Medium/Low

17. General Management Difficulty:Medium/Low significance
Comments: May be difficult to eradicate from lawns (Strausbaugh and Core 1978; Rolan 1983).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Has a persistent seed bank; four years of treatment failed to eradicate the species at one site (D. Taylor pers. comm. 2007).

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Sometimes necessary to use harsh herbicides to achieve eradication (D. Taylor pers. comm. 2007).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Invades moist woods, disturbed habitats, pastures, roadsides and lawns, none of which should pose major accessibility problems (Radford 1968, Gleason and Cronquist 1991).
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alien plants ranking system (APRS) Implementation Team. 2001a. Alien plants ranking system version 7.1. Southwest Exotic Plant Information Clearinghouse, Flagstaff, AZ. Online. Available: http://www.usgs.nau.edu/swepic/ (accessed 2004).

  • Dorn, R. D. 2001. Vascular Plants of Wyoming. 3rd edition. Mountain West Publishing. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 412 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

  • No author. No date. Plants for a future database. Available: http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/pfaf/D_intro.html. (Accessed 2004).

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Roland, A.E., and E.C. Smith. 1983. The flora of Nova Scotia: Volumes 1 and 2. Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, NS, Canada. 746 pp.

  • Strausbaugh, P.D., and E.L. Core. 1978. Flora of West Virginia. Seneca Books, Inc., Grantsville, WV. 1079 pp.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

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