Glaucomys volans - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Southern Flying Squirrel
Other English Common Names: southern flying squirrel
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Glaucomys volans (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 180170)
French Common Names: petit polatouche
Spanish Common Names: Ardilla Voladora
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102958
Element Code: AMAFB09010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Rodents
Image 7712

© Larry Master

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Rodentia Sciuridae Glaucomys
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Glaucomys volans
Taxonomic Comments: Pattern of variation in cranial characteristics does not correspond well with current subspecies ranges in southwestern part of range; morphological differences between populations in Middle America and eastern U.S. are no greater than differences between populations in northeastern and southwestern parts of range in U.S. (Braun 1988).

Thorington et al. (1996) examined morphological variation in three genera of flying squirrels and concluded that Glaucomys, Hylopetes, and Eoglaucomys form three distinct clades, with G. volans and G. sabrinus congeneric (contrasting with earlier suggestions by Burt).

Arbogast (1999) examined mtDNA phylogeography based on samples from Louisiana, Tennessee, and West Virginia and found only one major mtDNA lineage.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 06Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (01Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S5), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S5), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S4), Kansas (S3), Kentucky (S5), Louisiana (S5), Maine (SU), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S5), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S4), Nebraska (S1), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S5), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S3), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (S5), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S4), Vermont (S5), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Nova Scotia (S2S3), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S3)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):NAR
Comments on COSEWIC: Designated Special Concern in April 1988. Split into two populations in April 2006: Great Lakes Plains population (pop. 1) and Atlantic (Nova Scotia) population (pop. 2); both are designated Not at Risk The original designation for the species was de-activated.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Texas, Kansas, and Minnesota east to Quebec and Nova Scotia (uncommon to rare in these provinces) and eastern U.S.; montane populations scattered from northwestern Mexico to Honduras (Hoffmann et al., in Wilson and Reeder 1993). See Stabb (1988 COSEWIC report) for information on distribution and abundance in Canada.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Common throughout most of range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include loss of habitat and loss of cavity-bearing and mast-producing trees. In Arkansas, a seed-tree harvest regime, particularly without retained overstory hardwoods, produced a level of disturbance and resource depletion that was too severe for flying squirrel persistence (Taulman et al. 1998).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Texas, Kansas, and Minnesota east to Quebec and Nova Scotia (uncommon to rare in these provinces) and eastern U.S.; montane populations scattered from northwestern Mexico to Honduras (Hoffmann et al., in Wilson and Reeder 1993). See Stabb (1988 COSEWIC report) for information on distribution and abundance in Canada.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada NS, ON, QC

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Boone (19015), Clinton (19045), Jones (19105), Lucas (19117), Union (19175)
KS Bourbon (20011), Cherokee (20021), Crawford (20037), Douglas (20045), Jefferson (20087), Labette (20099), Leavenworth (20103), Linn (20107), Neosho (20133), Riley (20161), Shawnee (20177)
NE Nemaha (31127), Otoe (31131), Sarpy (31153)*
OK Cleveland (40027)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
07 Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+, Lake Red Rock (07100008)+
10 Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+*, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Little Nemaha (10240006)+*, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Middle Kansas (10270102)+, Delaware (10270103)+, Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Lower Big Blue (10270205)+, Thompson (10280102)+, Upper Chariton (10280201)+, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+, Marmaton (10290104)+
11 Middle Neosho (11070205)+, Spring (11070207)+, Little (11090203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: Flying squirrel.
Reproduction Comments: Gestation lasts about 40 days. Births peak April-May and late summer in north, late February-March and September-October in south. Litter size usually is about 2-3 in south, 3-4 in north. Young first breed in spring after birth in north, may breed late in 1st summer in south. Two distinct breeding periods in New Hampshire, February-March and June-July; two litters per year (Stapp and Mautz 1991).
Ecology Comments: Highly sociable, particularly in winter, when communal nesting peaks; communal nesting aggregations occur in both northern and southern populations (Layne and Raymond, 1994, J. Mamm. 75:110-120).

Population density was estimated at 31-38/ha in southeastern Virginia (Sawyer and Rose 1985), 10-14/ha in Maryland, 1.5-2.5/ha in Michigan-Massachusetts (see Layne and Raymond). May be ousted from cavities by some large cavity-nesting birds; may kill or oust some small cavity-nesting birds.

Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: In Maryland, home range averaged about 2-4 ha for adults, less than 1 ha for juveniles (Bendell and Gates 1987, Gilmore and Gates 1985). In New Hampshire, home range (convex polygon) was 3.4-22.1 (mean 9.9) ha for males, 3.0-4.4 ha for females (Fridell and Litvaitis 1991). In Arkansas, mean home range size was about 4 (female) and 8 (male) ha measured planimetrically, 4 (female) and 9 (male) ha taking into consideration topography via GIS (Stone et al. 1997).

Home ranges of G. volans varied from 5-13 hectares, mean 7.4 hectares (Weigl and Osgood 1974); mean 2.45 hectares for males and 1.95 hectares for females (Bendel and Gates 1987).

Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Suburban/orchard
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Prefers deciduous and mixed forests, particularly beech- maple, oak-hickory and poplar. Also occurs in old orchards. In New Hampshire, preferentially used areas with large shagbark hickories and beeches; males tended to use areas with large oaks, females tended to use areas with abundant snags (Fridell and Litvaitis 1991). Favors small, abandoned woodpecker holes for den sites; also uses nest boxes and abandoned bird and squirrel nests outside tree cavities.
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats plant and animal foods. Most "carnivorous" of the squirrels (Dolan and Carter 1977). Feeds on insects in spring; nuts, seeds, and fruits through the rest of the year. May eat birds (especially eggs and young) and carrion. Caches food for winter. In South Carolina, acorns were most important throughout year; pine seeds, other plant material, and a few insects also consumed (Harlow and Doyle 1990).
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Active at night throughout the year, except during extreme winter cold. Will enter a state of torpor in cold periods.
Length: 25 centimeters
Weight: 70 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Flying Squirrels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Flying squirrels are highly mobile and surely capable of significant dispersal, though actual dispersal patterns are poorly known. Likely most dispersal is not more than a few kilometers.

Unsuitable habitat includes areas lacking or largely devoid of trees. Presumably movement across treeless gaps is minimal, hence the default minimum separation distance for unsuitable habitat.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .3 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a home range of 7 hectares.
Date: 12Mar2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Nov2003
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10Nov1997
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des mammifères du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 5 pages.

  • Arbogast, B. S. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the New World flying squirrels (Glaucomys): implications for Pleistocene biogeography. Journal of Mammalogy 80:142-155.

  • Austin, K., et. al. 1988. Recovery Plan for the Appala- chian Northern Flying Squirrels.

  • BEE, J.W., G.E. GLASS, R.S. HOFFMANN, AND R.R. PATTERSON. 1981. MAMMALS IN KANSAS. UNIV.KANS.MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED. SERIES NO.7.

  • BRADY, M.J., T.S. RISCH ET F.S. DOBSON. 2000. Availability of nest sites does not limit population size of southern flying squirrels. Can. J. Zool. 78 p.1144-1149.

  • Baker, R. H. 1983. Michigan mammals. Michigan State University Press. 642 pp.

  • Baker, R. J., L. C. Bradley, R. D. Bradley, J. W. Dragoo, M. D. Engstrom, R. S. Hoffman, C. A. Jones, F. Reid, D. W. Rice, and C. Jones. 2003. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 229:1-23. [Available online at http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/opapers/ops/op229.pdf ]

  • Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 438 pp.

  • Banfield, A. W. F. 1977. Les Mammifères du Canada. Publié pour le Musée national des sciences naturelles, Musées nationaux du Canada, par les Presses de l'Université Laval. 406 p.

  • Banfield, A.W.F. 1974. Les Mammifères du Canada. Musée national des Sciences naturelles. Les Presses de l'Université Laval, Québec. 406 p.

  • Beaudin, L. et M. Quintin. 1991. Mammifères terrestres du Québec, de l'Ontario et des Maritimes. Éditions Michel Quintin. 301 p.

  • Beaulieu, H. 1992. Liste des espèces de la faune vertébrée susceptibles d'être désignées menacées ou vulnérables. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche. 107 p.

  • Bendel, P. R., and J. E. Gates. 1987. Home range and microhabitat partitioning of the southern flying squirrel (GLAUCOMYS VOLANS). Journal of Mammalogy 68:243-55.

  • Bendell, P. R., and J. E. Gates. 1987. Home range and microhabitat partitioning of the southern flying squirrel (GLAUCOMYS VOLANS). J. Mamm. 68:243-255.

  • Braun, J. K. 1988. Systematics and biogeography of the southern flying squirrel, GLAUCOMYS VOLANS. J. Mamm. 69:422-426.

  • Chambers, R.E. 1983. Integrating timber and wildlife management. State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

  • Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 1999. Canadian Species at Risk: April 1999. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 17 pp.

  • Connor, P.F. 1960. The small mammals of Otsego and Schoharie Counties, New York. N.Y.S. Museum and Science Service Bull. 382. 84 pp.

  • Connor, P.F. 1966. The mammals of the Tug Hill Plateau, New York. New York State Museum and Science Service Bulletin. 406. 82 pp.

  • Connor, P.F. 1971. The mammals of Long Island, New York. NYS Museum and Science Service Bull. 416. 78 pp.

  • DOLAN, P.G., AND D.C. CARTER. 1977. MAMMALIAN SPECIES NO. 78, GLAUCOMYS VOLANS. THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MAMMALOGISTS, 6 P.

  • Dawson, N. 2001. A survey of Ontario trappers to estimate wildlife population levels and population changes: 1999-2000 Summary Report. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Northwest Region, Wildlife Assessment Program. Unpaginated.

  • Dobbyn, J.S. 1994. Atlas of the Mammals of Ontario. Federation of Ontario Naturalists, Don Mills, Ontario. 120 pp.

  • Dobbyn, J.S. 1994. Atlas of the mammals in Ontario. Federation of Ontario Naturalists, 355 Leslie Road, Don Mills, Ontario, M3B 2W8. 120 pp.

  • Dodsworth, S. and D.A. Sutherland. 2005. COSSARO Candidate Species At Risk Evaluation Form for Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans). Natural Heritage Information Centre. Prepared for Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough. October, 12 pp.

  • Dolan, Pub., and D.C. Carter. 1977. Glaucomys volans. Am. Soc. Mamm., Mammalian Species No. 78, pp. 1-6.

  • Fridell, R. A., and J. A. Litvaitis. 1991. Influence of resource distribution and abundance on home-range characteristics of southern flying squirrels. Can. J. Zool. 69:2589-2593.

  • GEHLBACH, FREDERICK R. 1991. THE EAST-WEST TRANSITION ZONE OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES IN CENTRAL TEXAS: A BIOGEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS. TEXAS J. SCI. 43(4):415-427.

  • Gilmore, R. M., and J. E. Gates. 1985. Habitat use by the southern flying squirrel at a hemlock-northern hardwood ecotone. J. Wildl. Manage. 49:703-710.

  • Godin, A. J. 1977. Wild mammals of New England. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 304 pp.

  • HALL, E.R. 1981. THE MAMMALS OF NORTH AMERICA, SECOND EDITION, 2 VOLUMES. JOHN WILEY & SONS, NEW YORK. (1:600 P., 2:581 P.).

  • HALL,E. 1955. HANDBOOK OF MAMMALS IN KANSAS. UNIV KS MUS NAT HIST AND KBS.

  • HAMILTON, W.J. JR., AND J.O. WHITAKER, JR. 1979. MAMMALS OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES, SECOND EDITION. CORNELL UNIVERSITY PRESS, ITHACA, NEW YORK. 346 P.

  • HOWELL, A.H. 1909. NOTES ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF CERTAIN MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES PROC. BIOL. SOC. WASH. 22:55-68.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Hall, E. Raymond and Keith R. Kelson. 1959. The Mammals of North America. The Ronald Press Company, New York. 1083 pp.

  • Hamilton, W. J., Jr., and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1979. Mammals of the eastern United States. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York. 346 pp.

  • Hamilton, W.J., Jr. and J.O. Whitaker, Jr. 1979. Mammals of the eastern United States. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 346 pp.

  • Harlow, R. F., and A. T. Doyle. 1990. Food habits of southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) collected from red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies in South Carolina. American Midland Naturalist 124:187-191.

  • Heaney, L. R., and E. C. Birney. 1975. Comments on the distribution and natural history of some mammals in Minnesota. Canadian Field-Naturalist 89(1):29-34.

  • Hebda, A.J. 2011. List of mammals of Nova Scotia (including synonyms used in the literature relating to Nova Scotia) (revision 2) 24 July 2011. Nova Scotia Museum Collections Unit, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 24 pp. Online. Available: https://naturalhistory.novascotia.ca/sites/default/files/inline/images/names_and_synonyms_ver3.pdf

  • Howell, A. H. 1918. Revision of the American flying squirrels. North American Fauna 44:1-64.

  • Jackson, Hartley T. 1961. Mammals of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press. Madison, WI 53701. 504pp.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr. and C. Jones. 1992. Revised checklist of recent land mammals of Texas, with annotations. The Texas Journal of Science 44(1):53-74.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., C. Jones, and D. J. Schmidly. 1988. Annotated checklist of recent land mammals of Texas. Occasional Papers The Museum Texas Tech University 119:1-26.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Jones, J. K., S. Demarais, and C. T. McAllister. 1995. Contribution to a bibliography of recent Texas mammals 1981-1990. Special Publications, The Museum Texas Tech University 38:1-64.

  • KENNEDY, M.L., ET. AL. 1974. A REVIEW OF MISSISSIPPI MAMMALS. STUDIES IN NATURAL SCIENCES. 2(1):1-36.

  • LOWERY, G.H., JR. 1974. THE MAMMALS OF LOUISIANA AND ITS ADJACENT WATERS. LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 565 P.

  • Landon, M. 1941. Changes in the squirrel population of Charlotteville Township, Norfolk County, Ontario, 1898-1940. Canadian Field-Naturalist 55:102-103.

  • Linzey, D.W. 2016. Mammals of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: 2016 revision. Southeastern Naturalist 15(Monograph 8):1?93.

  • Lowery, George H. 1974. The mammals of Louisiana and its adjacent waters. Kingsport Press, Inc. Kingsport, Tennessee. 565 pp.

  • MAcCLINTOCK, D. 1970. SQUIRRELS OF NORTH AMERICA. VAN NOSTRAND REINHOLD COMPANY, NEW YORK, NEW YORK. 184 P.

  • MISSISSIPPI MUSEUM OF NATURAL SCIENCE. 1989. COUNTY INFORMATION FOR MAMMALS OF MISSISSIPPI.

  • MITCHELL, W.A. AND C.O. MARTIN. 1985. SOUTHWEST MISSISSIPPI TRIVUTARIES STUDY AREA ENVIROMENTAL INVENTORY - WILDLIFE RESOURES. MISCELLANEOUS PAPER EL-85-3, U.S. ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION, VICKSBURG, MISSISSIPPI. 90P.

  • Madden, J.R. 1974. Female territoriality in a Suffolk County Long Island population of Glaucomys volans. J. Mamm.55(3):647-652

  • Mammalian Species, nos. 1-604. Published by the American Society of Mammalogists.

  • Merritt, J.F. 1987. Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 408 pp. B87MER01PAUS.

  • Mumford, R. E., and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1982. Mammals of Indiana. Indiana University Press, Bloomington. 537 pp.

  • Mumford, Russell E. 1969. Distribution of the Mammals of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, Indiana. 114 pp.

  • Muul, I. 1968. Behavior and physiological influences on the distribution of the flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans. Univ.MI Mus. Zool., Misc. Publ. No. 134. 66 pp.

  • New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit, Wildlife Resources Center, Delmar, NY.

  • OWEN, JAMES G. 1990. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF MAMMALIAN DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS IN TEXAS. ECOLOGY 71(5):1823-1832.

  • OWEN, JAMES G. 1990. PATTERNS OF MAMMALIAN SPECIES RICHNESS IN RELATION TO TEMPERATURE, PRODUCTIVITY, AND VARIANCE IN ELEVATION. J. MAMM. 71(1):1-13.

  • Parks Canada. 2000. Vertebrate Species Database. Ecosystems Branch, 25 Eddy St., Hull, PQ, K1A 0M5.

  • Prescott, J. et P. Richard. 1996. Mammifères du Québec et de l'Est du Canada. Éditions Michel Quintin. 399 p.

  • Reid, F. A. 1997. A field guide to the mammals of Central America and southeast Mexico. Oxford University Press, Incorporated New York, New York. 334 pp.

  • SOCIÉTÉ DE LA FAUNE ET DES PARCS DU QUÉBEC. 2003. Les espèces menacées [en ligne]. Disponible sur le site Internet. - Accès :< http://www.fapaq.gouv.qc.ca/fr/etu_rec/esp_mena_vuln/index.htm La société, 2003 [Réf. du 8 janv. 2003].- .

  • Sawyer, S. L., and R. K. Rose. 1985. Homing and ecology ofthe southern flying squirrel Glaucomys volans in southeastern Virginia. Am. Midl. Nat. 113:238-244.

  • Schwartz, C. W., and E. R. Schwartz. 1981. The wild mammals of Missouri. University of Missouri Press, Columbia. 356 pp.

  • Sealander, J.A. and G.A. Heidt. 1990. Arkansas Mammals: Their Natural History, Classification and Distribution. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville. 308 pp.

  • See SERO listing

  • Service canadien de la faune 2003. Les espèces en péril [en ligne]. Disponible sur le site internet. -Accès :«http://www.especesenperil.gc.ca/default_f.cfm». Service canadien de la faune, 2003. [Réf. 14 janvier 2003]. .

  • Société de la faune et des parcs du Québec. 2003. Les espèces menacées [en ligne]. Disponible sur le site Internet. - Accès :«http://www.fapaq.gouv.qc.ca/fr/etu_rec/esp_mena_vuln/index.htm». La société, 2003 [Réf. 3 novembre 2003] .

  • Sollberger, D.E. 1943. Notes on the breeding habits of the eastern flying squirrel. (Glaucomys volans volans). J. Mamm. 24(2):163-173.

  • Stabb, M. 1988. Status Report on the Southern Flying Squirrel, Glaucomys volans. Unpublished Report prepared for the Committee On the Status of Endangered Wildlife In Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa. 83 pp.

  • Stabb, M. 1988. Status report on the Southern Flying Squirrel GLAUCOMYS VOLANS in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 83 pp.

  • Stabb, M. and P.L. Aird. 1990. The Southern Flying Squirrel in Carolinian Canada. Pp. 183 -191, in, G.M. Allen, P.F.J. Eagles and S.D. Price (eds.). Conserving Carolinian Canada. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, Ontario.

  • Stabb, M.A. 1987. In Search of Flying Squirrels. The Cardinal 126:17-19.

  • Stabb, M.A., M.E. Gartshore and P.L. Aird. 1989. Interactions of Southern Flying Squirrels, Glaucomys volans, and Cavity-nesting Birds. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 103:401-403.

  • Stapp, P., P.J. Pekins and W.W. Mautz. 1991. Winter energy expenditure and the distribution of southern flying squirrels. Can. J. Zool. 69: 2548-2555.

  • Stapp, P., and W. M. Mautz. 1991. Breeding habits and postnatal growth of the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) in New Hampshire. Am. Midl. Nat. 126:203-208.

  • Stone, K. D., G. A. Heidt, P. T. Caster, and M. L. Kennedy. 1997. Using geographic information systems to determine home range of the southern flying squirrel (GLAUCOMYS VOLANS). American Midland Naturalist 137:106-111.

  • TAULMAN, J.F., K.G. SMITH ET R.E. THILL. 1998. Demographic and behavioural responses of southern flying squirrels to experimental logging in Arkansas. Ecol. Appl. (8) p. 1144-1155.

  • Taulman, J. F., K. G. Smith, and R. E. Thill. 1998. Demographic and behavioral responses of southern flying squirrels to experimental logging in Arkansas. Ecological Applications 8:1144-1155.

  • Thorington, R. W., Jr., A. L. Musante, C. G. Anderson, and K. Darrow. 1996. Validity of three genera of flying squirrels: EOGLAUCOMYS, GLAUCOMYS, and HYLOPETES. Journal of Mammalogy 77:69-83.

  • WARD, R.P. 1965. THE MAMMALS OF MISSISSIPPI. J. MISS. ACAD. SCI. 11:309-330.

  • WARD, R.P., ET. AL. 1961. A PRELIMINARY CHECKLIST OF MAMMALS INHABITING FORESTED AREAS OF THE LOESS OF WEST-CENTRAL MISSISSIPPI. J. MISS. ACAD. SCI. 7:70-71.

  • WEIGL, P.D. 1978. Resource overlap, interspecific interactions and the distribution of the flying squirrels, Glaucomys volans and G. sabrinus. American Midland Naturalist 100(1). p.83-96.

  • Weigl, P. D. 1978. Resource overlap, interspecific interactions and the distribution of the flying squirrels...American Midland Naturalist. 100(1).

  • Weigl, P. D. and D. W. Osgood. 1974. Study of the northern flying squirrel, GLAUCOMYS SABRINUS, by temperature telemetry. Am. Midl. Nat. 92:482-86.

  • Weigl, P.D. 1969. The Distribution of the Flying SquirrelsGlaucomys volans and Glaucomys sabrinus... Ph.D. Thesis.

  • Weigl, P.D. 1978. Resource Overlap, Interspecific Intercations and the Distribution of the Flying Squirrels, Glaucomys volans and G. sabrinus. American Midland Naturalist 100:83-96.

  • Wells-Gosling, N. 1985. Flying squirrels: gliders in the dark. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 128 pp.

  • Whitaker, John O., Jr., and Russell E. Mumford. 2009. Mammals of Indiana. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Wilson, D. E., and S. Ruff. 1999. The Smithsonian book of North American mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 750 pp.

  • Wolfe, J.L. 1971. Mississippi land mammals. Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, Mississippi 44 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.