Glandirana rugosa - (Temminck and Schlegel, 1838)
Wrinkled Frog
Other English Common Names: Japanese Wrinkled Frog
Synonym(s): Rana rugosa Temminck and Schlegel, 1838
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Glandirana rugosa (Temminck and Schlegel, 1838) (TSN 774987)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100244
Element Code: AAABH01260
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Frogs and Toads
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Anura Ranidae Glandirana
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Rana rugosa
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Apr2004
Global Status Last Changed: 14Oct2000
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA (05Nov1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Hawaii (SNA)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Native to Japan and the Korean Peninsula (McKeown 1996). Introduced in Hawaii probably in 1895 or 1896 (Oliver and Shaw 1953); now occurs in localized areas at low and middle elevations on Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai (McKeown 1996).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Native to Japan and the Korean Peninsula (McKeown 1996). Introduced in Hawaii probably in 1895 or 1896 (Oliver and Shaw 1953); now occurs in localized areas at low and middle elevations on Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai (McKeown 1996).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States HIexotic

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004

Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding recorded February-July on Oahu (Oliver and Shaw 1953). In Japan, larvae overwinter before metamorphosing (Okada 1966).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Hawaii: occurs in and along mountain streams; basks on rocks protruding from stream or along stream bank; most common at pools overgrown with vegetation; seeks cover in leaf litter at bottom of pool. Common in rice paddies in Japan. Eggs are laid in slow-moving water among protruding sticks and vegetation.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Diet mainly insects.
Length: 4 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: May reduce insect pest populations in rice fields in Japan. Used as human food in Japan (Oliver and Shaw 1953).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Ranid Frogs

Use Class: Not applicable
Subtype(s): Breeding Location
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy major highway, especially at night, such that frogs rarely if ever cross successfully; urban development dominated by buildings and pavement; habitat in which site-specific data indicate the frogs virtually never occur.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: BARRIERS/UNSUITABLE HABITAT: Rivers may or may not be effective barriers, depending on stream width and flow dynamics; identification of streams as barriers is a subjective determination. Ranid frog species vary in habitat use, but even the most aquatic species may traverse upland habitat when conditions are suitable (Pope and Matthews 2001); natural and seminatural upland habitat generally does not constitute a barrier. Here, unsuitable habitat refers to upland habitat devoid or nearly devoid of wetlands, streams, ponds, or lakes. Bodies of water dominated by predatory fishes may be barriers to some species but suitable habitat for others; in most cases, such waters probably should be regarded as unsuitable habitat.

SUITABLE HABITAT: Suitable habitat includes riparian/riverine corridors, wetlands, and wetland/upland mosaics in which wetland patches are separated by less than 1 km of upland habitat; it also includes any upland habitat regularly used for feeding or wintering (e.g., mesic forest for wood frogs).

MOVEMENTS: Available information indicates that individual ranids occasionally move distances of several km (R. luteiventris: Reaser 1996, cited by Koch et al. 1997; R. blairi: Gillis 1975) but most individuals stay within a few kilometers of their breeding sites (R. aurora draytonii: USFWS, Federal Register, 11 September 2000; R. capito: Franz et al. 1988; R. clamitans: Lamoureux and Madison 1999; R. luteiventris: Turner 1960, Hollenbeck 1974, Bull and Hayes 2001). Similarly, maximum distance between capture points generally is a few kilometers or less (R. aurora: Hayes et al. 2001; USFWS, Federal Register, 11 September 2000; R. catesbeiana: Willis et al. 1956; R. luteiventris: Reaser and Pilliod, in press; Engle 2000; R. muscosa: Pope and Matthews 2001). Dispersal data for juveniles are lacking for most species.

Adult and juvenile R. sylvatica readily traveled in excess of 300 m from their pools of origin (Vasconcelos and Calhoun 2004). Bellis (1965) determined that adult and juvenile R. sylvatica in a peat bog had traveled at least 410 m from the nearest breeding pool. Berven and Grudzien (1990) found that dispersing R. sylvatica juveniles traveled an average of 1,208 m from their natal pools. In the Shenandoah Mountains, data for R. sylvatica indicated that ponds separated by a distance greater than 1,000 m should experience little gene flow (Berven and Grudzien 1991). In contrast, populations in Minnesota were very similar in allelic frequencies, even at distances greater than several kilometers (Squire and Newman 2002). However, sample sizes and number of loci examined were small, and genetic patterns do not necessarily reflect movement distances.

The preponderance of data for ranids indicate that a separation distance of several kilometers may be appropriate for suitable habitat and practical for occurrence delineation, despite occasional movements that are longer and that may allow some genetic interchange between distant populations. The movement data for ranids are here regarded as consistent enough to allow the same separation distance to be used for different species; much of the apparent variation in movements doubtless reflects differences in study methods and in the ability to detect long-distance movements.

Date: 01Apr2005
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Apr2004
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 23Jan1989
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bannikov, A.G., Darevsky, I.S., Ishchenko, V.G., Rustamov, A.K. and Szczerbak, N.N. 1977. Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosvechshenie. Moscow.

  • Dubois, A. 1992. Notes sur la clasification des Ranidae (Amphibiens Anoures). Bull. Mensuel. Soc. Linneenne de Lyon. 61(10):305-352.

  • Fei, L., Ye, C.-Y., Huang, Y.-A. and Liu, M.-Y. 1999. Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Science and Technical Press. Zhengzhou.

  • Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.

  • Frost, D. R. 2002. Amphibian Species of the World: an online reference. V2.21 (15 July 2002). Electronic database available at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.

  • Frost, D. R. 2010. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.4 (8 April 2010). Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

  • Kuzmin, S.L. 1999. The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft. Sofia-Moscow.

  • MacKinnon, J., Meng, S., Cheung, C., Carey, G., Zhu, X. and Melville, D. 1996. A Biodiversity Review of China. World Wide Fund for Nature International Hong Kong.

  • Maeda, N. and Matsui, M. 1999. Frogs and Toads of Japan. Revised edition. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan Co., Ltd. Tokyo.

  • McKeown, S. 1978. Hawaiian reptiles and amphibians. Oriental Pub. Co., Honolulu. 80 pp.

  • McKeown, S. 1996. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians in the Hawaiian Islands. Diamond Head Publishing. Los Osos, California.

  • Okada, Y. 1966. Fauna Japonica: Anura (Amphibia). Biogeog. Soc. Japan, Tokyo.

  • Oliver, J. A., and C. E. Shaw. 1953. The amphibians and reptiles of the Hawaiian Islands. Zoologica 38:65-95.

  • Sengoku, S., Hikida, T., Matsui, M. and Nakaya, K. 1996. The Encyclopedia of Animals in Japan. Volume 5. Amphibians, Reptiles, Chondrichthyes. Heibonsha Limited. Tokyo.

  • Svihla, A. 1936. RANA RUGOSA Schlegel. Notes on the life history of this interesting frog. Mid-Pacific Magazine 49(2):124-125.

  • Szyndlar, Z. 1984. A description of a small collection of amphibians and reptiles from the People's Democratic Republic of Korea with notes on the distribution of the herpetofauna in that country. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia. 27(1):1-18.

  • Yang, S.-Y. and Yu, C.H. 1978. Checklist of Korean Amphibians. Bulletin Institute of Industrial Resources. 5(5):81-90.

  • Zhao, E.-M. and Adler, K. 1993. Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Oxford, Ohio.

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