Gila atraria - (Girard, 1856)
Utah Chub
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Gila atraria (Girard, 1856) (TSN 163543)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101436
Element Code: AFCJB13020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Gila
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Gila atraria
Taxonomic Comments: Originally described as Siboma atraria. Considerable confusion has existed and the list of synonyms is long. LaRivers (1962, Fishes and Fisheries of Nevada) summarized taxonomic history (Lee et al. 1980).

Johnson (2002) examined range-wide mtDNA variation and identified two distinct clades: Bonneville Basin and upper Snake River.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 13Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (SNA), Idaho (S4), Montana (SNA), Nevada (SNR), Utah (S3), Wyoming (S4?)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the ancient Lake Bonneville drainage basin in southeastern Idaho and Utah, (Andersen and Deacon 1996) and the upper Snake River system above Shoshone Falls, Wyoming and Idaho (Page and Burr 2011). The species has been introduced into eastern Nevada, upper Missouri River basin (Montana), and Colorado River drainage (Wyoming and Utah) (Page and Burr 1991).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This species is locally common (Page and Burr 20110.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Some native populations have been much reduced, whereas many introduced populations are thriving (Sigler and Sigler 1996).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) Range includes the ancient Lake Bonneville drainage basin in southeastern Idaho and Utah, (Andersen and Deacon 1996) and the upper Snake River system above Shoshone Falls, Wyoming and Idaho (Page and Burr 2011). The species has been introduced into eastern Nevada, upper Missouri River basin (Montana), and Colorado River drainage (Wyoming and Utah) (Page and Burr 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZexotic, ID, MTexotic, NV, UT, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
UT Beaver (49001), Carbon (49007), Duchesne (49013), Emery (49015), Garfield (49017), Iron (49021)*, Juab (49023), Kane (49025)*, Millard (49027), Piute (49031), Sanpete (49039), Sevier (49041), Tooele (49045), Utah (49049), Wasatch (49051), Washington (49053)*, Wayne (49055)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
14 Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106), Duchesne (14060003)+, Strawberry (14060004)+, Price (14060007)+, San Rafael (14060009)+, Muddy (14070002)+, Fremont (14070003)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101), Bear Lake (16010201), Middle Bear (16010202), Little Bear-Logan (16010203), Lower Bear-Malad (16010204), Lower Weber (16020102), Utah Lake (16020201)+, Spanish Fork (16020202)+, Provo (16020203)+, Jordan (16020204), Hamlin-Snake Valleys (16020301)+, Pine Valley (16020302), Tule Valley (16020303), Rush-Tooele Valleys (16020304)+, Skull Valley (16020305), Southern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020306)+, Northern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020308), Curlew Valley (16020309), Upper Sevier (16030001)+, East Fork Sevier (16030002)+, Middle Sevier (16030003)+, San Pitch (16030004)+, Lower Sevier (16030005)+, Escalante Desert (16030006)+, Beaver Bottoms-Upper Beaver (16030007)+, Lower Beaver (16030008)+, Sevier Lake (16030009)
17 Snake headwaters (17040101), Gros Ventre (17040102), Greys-Hobock (17040103), Salt (17040105), Upper Henrys (17040202), American Falls (17040206), Portneuf (17040208), Lake Walcott (17040209), Raft (17040210), Goose (17040211), Beaver-Camas (17040214), Big Wood (17040219), Little Wood (17040221)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns spring and summer at temperatures in 50s and 60s F. Eggs hatch in 6-9 days at temperatures in mid-60s F (Brown 1971). Males sexually mature in 2-3 years, females in 3-4+ years, depending on locality. Normal lifespan about 5-8 years.
Ecology Comments: May compete with small trout for food and space.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Habitat Comments: This species is found in a wide variety of habitats: lakes, reservoirs, and ponds; quiet pools of headwaters, creeks, small to medium rivers, springs, and irrigation ditches; often it occurs in areas with dense aquatic vegetation over mud or sand (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). It is tolerant of a wide range of chemical and physical conditions (Sigler and Miller 1963). During spawning, eggs are cast over various types of substrate in shallow water (0.6 meters or less) (Simpson and Wallace 1982).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Young chubs feed heavily on zooplankton until they reach a length of 6-7 inches. After this time a major portion of their diet consists of aquatic plants, insects and crustaceans.
Length: 22 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Used as a bait fish in many areas. Considered a nuisance fish by many fisheries management agencies.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Medium Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than many kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 07Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M. E., and J. E. Deacon. 1996. Status of endemic non-salmonid fishes in eastern Nevada. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 29:124-133.

  • Brown, C. J. D. 1971. Fishes of Montana. Big Sky Books, the Endowment and Research Foundation, Montana State University, Bozeman. MT. 207 pp.

  • Johnson, J. B. 2002. Evolution after the flood: phylogeography of the desert fish Utah chub. Evolution 56:948-960.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Sigler, W. F., and J. W. Sigler. 1987. Fishes of the Great Basin: a natural history. University of Nevada Press, Reno, Nevada. xvi + 425 pp.

  • Sigler, W. F., and R. R. Miller. 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah State Department of Fish and Game, Salt Lake City, Utah, 203 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Miller, W. H., H. M. Tyus, and C. A. Carlson. 1982. Fishes of the upper Colorado system: present and future. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. 131 pp.

  • Simpson, J. and R. Wallace. 1982. Fishes of Idaho. The University Press of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 238 pp.

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