Geum radiatum - Michx.
Spreading Avens
Other English Common Names: Appalachian Avens
Other Common Names: Appalachian avens
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Geum radiatum Michx. (TSN 24658)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.129612
Element Code: PDROS0S0C0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Rose Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Rosales Rosaceae Geum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Geum radiatum
Taxonomic Comments: Geum radiatum is a distinct species, sibling to Geum peckii of New England and Nova Scotia, or may be conspecific with that (in which case the older name Geum radiatum would apply to the collective species).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Dec2015
Global Status Last Changed: 30Sep2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Occurs on exposed northwest-facing cliffs and heath balds on isolated mountaintops over 1,300 m in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. There are about 15 populations with about 36 subpopulations. Three populations are extirpated (2 populations thought to be extirpated were rediscovered). The species has low seed and primarily spreads by rhizomes. Threats to this species include trampling, rock climbing, development, acid rain, and over collection. At many sites, threats have been minimized.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States North Carolina (S2), Tennessee (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (05Apr1990)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs on scattered high elevation peaks in western North Carolina (Ashe, Avery, Buncombe, Mitchell, Transylvania, Watauga, and Yancey counties) and eastern Tennessee (Carter and Sever counties).

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: The USFWS (2013) describes 15 extant populations (36 subpopulations) and 3 extirpated populations that correspond to about 20 occurrences in the NatureServe Network Database.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)

Overall Threat Impact: High - low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by trampling nearby hiking trails, horticultural collection, rock climbing and rappelling, prolonged drought, and development. Hiking and rock climbing has been limited or sites closed to these activities at some sites, and some are showing signs of recovery

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Several populations are proving to be fairly stable with low mortality and low recruitment (low seedling recruitment). Three sites are extirpated. At some site with activities (recreation) that were causing declines, they are now seeing signs of recovery after the activities were limited or banned.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Has low rates of seedling recruitment.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs on scattered high elevation peaks in western North Carolina (Ashe, Avery, Buncombe, Mitchell, Transylvania, Watauga, and Yancey counties) and eastern Tennessee (Carter and Sever counties).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NC, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Ashe (37009), Avery (37011), Buncombe (37021), Haywood (37087), Mitchell (37121), Transylvania (37175), Watauga (37189), Yancey (37199)
TN Carter (47019), Sevier (47155)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Catawba (03050101)+
05 Upper New (05050001)+
06 Watauga (06010103)+, Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Pigeon (06010106)+, Lower French Broad (06010107)+, Nolichucky (06010108)+, Lower Little Tennessee (06010204)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb with stems that grow up to 5 dm tall from a large basal rosette of leaves. The stems are topped with showy, bright yellow flowers during most of the summer. There is no other Geum in the southeastern U.S. that remotely resembles this species. It is taxonomically closest to G. peckii, a species whose southernmost range is in the White Mountains of New Hampshire - about 900 km north of G. radiatum's range.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Barrens, Cliff, Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Exposed, high elevation situations in the southern Appalachians. Primarily in the crevices of northwest-facing cliffs. Also at the bases of talus slopes, or, rarely, in openings in montane heath balds. Found only at elevations over 1310 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Sep2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Weakley, Alan S. (NCHP, 1989), rev. L. Morse (2000), rev. Maybury (2006), rev. Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2014b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 9. Magnoliophyta: Picramniaceae to Rosaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 713 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Murdock, N. 1993. Recovery plan for spreading avens (Geum radiatum Rafinesque). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region, Atlanta, GA.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2013. Spreading avens (Geum radiatum) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Available. Online: http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4343.pdf.

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