Geum geniculatum - Michx.
Bent Avens
Other Common Names: bent avens
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Geum geniculatum Michx. (TSN 24651)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.141196
Element Code: PDROS0S050
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Rose Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Rosales Rosaceae Geum
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Geum geniculatum
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Dec2015
Global Status Last Changed: 07Dec2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Restricted to high elevations in the southern Appalachians in northwest North Carolina and northeast Tennessee. Locally abundant but known from only 4 populations covering 14 occurrences.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States North Carolina (S1S2), Tennessee (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina (Mitchell & Watauga Counties) and Tennessee (Carter County).

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Known from 14 to 15 occurrences in NC and TN on three mountains: Roan, Grandfather, and Rich Mountains in NC and Roan Mountain in Tennessee.

Population Size Comments: Locally abundant. One suboccurrence in NC is reported as having "thousands to tens of thousands" (NCNHP 2007).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, and forest management practices are low-level threats to this species (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002). Additionally, site hydrology alterations and upstream sedimentation represent a treat to this species (Oakley 1991). Trampling by hikers, cutting by routine trail maintenance, and shading by vegetation have caused impacts to a limited number of suboccurrences in NC (NCNHP 2007).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Species requires moist, cool habitat. The most robust populations occur in seepage boulder fields and in stream beds or on banks in early to late successional northern hardwood, boulder field and cove forests, as defined by Schafale and Weakley (1990), between 4000 to 5200 feet of elevation. Occasionally plants may occur in moist, rocky hardwood forests adjacent to stream banks. Smaller populations may occur along the edges of grassy balds in high elevation seeps to 5800 feet (Oakley 1991).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina (Mitchell & Watauga Counties) and Tennessee (Carter County).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NC, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Avery (37011), Caldwell (37027), Mitchell (37121), Watauga (37189)
TN Carter (47019)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Catawba (03050101)+
05 Upper New (05050001)+
06 Watauga (06010103)+, Nolichucky (06010108)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A robust perennial herb with densely hairy stems, 5 - 7 dm tall. Leaves distinctly 3-parted with prominent stipules, 1 - 1.5 cm long. Sepals 5 - 10 mm, hirsute with some trichomes glandular; petals white or pinkish and about as long as the sepals; pistals longer than petals. Achenes 3 mm long with 7 - 9 mm un-hooked beak; both with long trichomes. Flower receptacle pubescent (Radford et.al. 1986). Loose clusters of white or pinkish flowers bloom in July and August.
Diagnostic Characteristics: When within the range of Geum geniculatum, Weakley (2007) indicates the species can be separated from the other Geum species by style with a kink or twist, calyx lobes greater than 4 mm long, part of style above the kink 3 - 7 mm long (constrasted with 1 - 2 mm long). The most closely related species is G. rivale which occurs further north.


Duration: PERENNIAL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Mountain top balds and high elevation, moist woodlands, banks of mountain streams (Weakley 2007). Tolerates deep shade. Often found in densely vegetated communities of Rhododendrons and other shrubs, herbs, ferns, and mosses. Occurrences in both Tennessee and North Carolina are often found in northern hardwood forests, beech gaps and along open areas of streams.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Sep2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Roth, E. (1987),rev. Maybury/Amoroso 6/96, rev. S. Mason and R. McCoy (2007), rev. A. Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Cooper, J.E., S.S. Robinson, and J.B. Funderburg (eds.). 1977. Endangered and threatened plants and animals of North Carolina. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. 444 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2014b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 9. Magnoliophyta: Picramniaceae to Rosaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 713 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Oakley, S.C. 1991. Element Stewardship Abstract for Geum geniculatum. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Sutter, R.D., V. Frantz, and K.A. McCarthy. 1988. Atlas of rare and endangered plant species in North Carolina. North Carolina Dept. Agriculture, Plant Protection Section, Conservation Program, Raleigh, North Carolina. 174 pp.

  • Weakley, A.S. 2007. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas. Working draft of 11 January 2007. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU), North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. [http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (accessed 2007)]

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.