Geothlypis trichas - (Linnaeus, 1766)
Common Yellowthroat
Other English Common Names: common yellowthroat
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus, 1766) (TSN 178944)
French Common Names: paruline masquée
Spanish Common Names: Mascarita Común
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101873
Element Code: ABPBX12010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Perching Birds
Image 11089

© Jeff Nadler

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Passeriformes Parulidae Geothlypis
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Geothlypis trichas
Taxonomic Comments: Exhibits relatively deep mtDNA separations between populations in Washington and those in the central and eastern states (Ball and Avise 1992). Populations around Lake Chapala, Jalisco, regarded as a distinct group, Chapalensis (AOU 1998). Sometimes regarded as conspecific with G. rostrata, G. flavovelata, and G. beldingi (AOU 1983). Further study required of species relationships with Geothlypis (AOU 1998).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 03Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (19Mar1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5M (29Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Alaska (S4B), Arizona (S4), Arkansas (S4B,S4N), California (SNR), Colorado (S4B), Connecticut (S5B), Delaware (S5B), District of Columbia (S3B,S4N), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Idaho (S5B), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4B), Iowa (S5B,S5N), Kansas (S5B), Kentucky (S5B), Louisiana (S3S4N,S5B), Maine (S4S5B), Maryland (S5B), Massachusetts (S5B), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNRB), Mississippi (S5B), Missouri (SNRB), Montana (S5B), Navajo Nation (S2S3B), Nebraska (S5), Nevada (S3B), New Hampshire (S5B), New Jersey (S4B), New Mexico (S4B,S4N), New York (S5B), North Carolina (S5B,S4N), North Dakota (SNRB), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S5B), Oregon (S5B), Pennsylvania (S4B), Rhode Island (S5B), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S5B), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5B), Utah (S3S4B), Vermont (S5B), Virginia (S5), Washington (S5B), West Virginia (S2N,S5B), Wisconsin (S4?B), Wyoming (S4B,S4N)
Canada Alberta (S5B), British Columbia (S5B), Labrador (S3B,SUM), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S5B,S5M), Newfoundland Island (S5B,S5M), Northwest Territories (S4B), Nova Scotia (S5B), Ontario (S5B), Prince Edward Island (S5B), Quebec (S5B), Saskatchewan (S5B), Yukon Territory (S5B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: southeastern Alaska to central Saskatchewan and Newfoundland, south to northern Baja California, southern Mexico, southern Texas, Gulf Coast, and southern Florida. WINTERS: northern California, southwestern U.S., southern Texas, Gulf states and South Carolina south through Mexico and the West Indies (fairly common in Puerto Rico, rare in Virgin Islands, Raffaele 1983), to Panama and rarely into Colombia, Venezuela, Netherlands Antilles.

Short-term Trend Comments: Breeding Bird Survey data indicate a significant population decline in eastern and central North America, 1978-1988, and a significant increase in western North America, 1966-1988 (Sauer and Droege 1992). In the southeastern and south-central U.S., delines have occurred in the uplands but not in the lowlands (BBS data, 1966-1987) (James et al. 1992).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: BREEDS: southeastern Alaska to central Saskatchewan and Newfoundland, south to northern Baja California, southern Mexico, southern Texas, Gulf Coast, and southern Florida. WINTERS: northern California, southwestern U.S., southern Texas, Gulf states and South Carolina south through Mexico and the West Indies (fairly common in Puerto Rico, rare in Virgin Islands, Raffaele 1983), to Panama and rarely into Colombia, Venezuela, Netherlands Antilles.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Alameda (06001), Contra Costa (06013), Marin (06041), Napa (06055), Sacramento (06067), San Francisco (06075)*, San Mateo (06081), Santa Clara (06085), Santa Cruz (06087), Solano (06095), Sonoma (06097)
ID Blaine (16013), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Caribou (16029), Cassia (16031), Franklin (16041), Fremont (16043), Gooding (16047), Latah (16057)
UT Beaver (49001)*, Box Elder (49003), Cache (49005)*, Carbon (49007)*, Daggett (49009), Davis (49011), Duchesne (49013)*, Garfield (49017), Grand (49019), Juab (49023)*, Kane (49025), Millard (49027)*, Salt Lake (49035), San Juan (49037)*, Summit (49043)*, Tooele (49045), Uintah (49047), Utah (49049), Wasatch (49051), Washington (49053), Wayne (49055), Weber (49057)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
14 Upper Colorado-Kane Springs (14030005)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Lower White (14050007)+, Lower Green-Diamond (14060001)+, Ashley-Brush (14060002)+*, Duchesne (14060003)+, Lower Green-Desolation Canyon (14060005)+, Willow (14060006)+, Price (14060007)+*, Upper Lake Powell (14070001)+, Fremont (14070003)+, Escalante (14070005)+, Lower Lake Powell (14070006)+*, Lower San Juan-Four Corners (14080201)+*
15 Kanab (15010003)+, Upper Virgin (15010008)+, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, Lower Virgin (15010010)+
16 Middle Bear (16010202)+, Little Bear-Logan (16010203)+*, Lower Bear-Malad (16010204)+, Upper Weber (16020101)+*, Lower Weber (16020102)+, Utah Lake (16020201)+, Spanish Fork (16020202)+*, Provo (16020203)+, Jordan (16020204)+, Tule Valley (16020303)+*, Skull Valley (16020305)+*, Southern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020306)+, Great Salt Lake (16020310)+*, Lower Sevier (16030005)+*, Beaver Bottoms-Upper Beaver (16030007)+*, Lower Beaver (16030008)+*
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Willow (17040205)+, Goose (17040211)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
18 Lower Sacramento (18020163)+, Suisun Bay (18050001)+, San Pablo Bay (18050002)+, Coyote (18050003)+, San Francisco Bay (18050004)+, Tomales-Drake Bays (18050005)+*, San Francisco Coastal South (18050006)+, San Lorenzo-Soquel (18060001)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Upperparts olive-brown; throat and breast yellow; sides tan; belly whitish; adult male has a broad black mask, bordered above by white; immature male has a pale eye ring and an indistinct mask; 11-14 cm long (NGS 1983).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from the Kentucky warbler by lacking a yellow line over the eye. Differs from the yellow-breasted chat in smaller size (chat 18 cm long) and lack of a white line extending from the top of the eye to the bill.
Reproduction Comments: Clutch size is 3-6 (usually 4). Usually produces two broods per year. Incubation, by female, lasts 11-13 days. Young are tended by both parents, leave nest at 8-10 days. Polygyny has been observed.
Ecology Comments: Density was about 1.5-2.5 territories per ha in southeastern Massachusetts (Morimoto and Wasserman 1991).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Winter: withdraws from areas north of the southern U.S. Arrives in Puerto Rico by September-October, departs mostly by the end of April but some remain into June; appears to congregate and pair before migrating north in spring (Raffaele 1983). Migration in Costa Rica extends from mid-October to November and from April to early May (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Present in South America mostly October-April (Ridgely and Tudor 1989).
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Old field, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Marshes (especially cattail), thickets near water, bogs, brushy pastures, old fields, and, locally, undergrowth of humid forest. In migration and winter also in brushy and shrubby areas in both moist and arid regions (AOU 1983).

Nests just above ground or over water, in weeds, reeds, cattails, tules, grass tussocks, brier bushes, and similar situations; often at base of shrub or sapling, sometimes higher in weeds or shrubs up to about 1 m.

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats various small invertebrates obtained among low plants.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 13 centimeters
Weight: 10 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Passerines

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Nest Site, Nesting Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas.

For swallows and other species that have separate nesting and foraging areas, separations are based on nest sites or nesting areas, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap larger than the separation distance are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Mean foraging radius (from nesting area) of Brown-headed Cowbird females was 4.0 kilometers in California, 1.2 kilometers in Illinois-Missouri (Thompson 1994). Yellow-headed Blackbirds, Brewer's Blackbirds, and probably Red-winged Blackbirds all forage up to 1.6 kilometers away from breeding colony (Willson 1966, Horn 1968). In one study, Brewer's Blackbirds were found as far as 10 kilometers from nesting area (Williams 1952), but this may be unusual.

For swallows and other parrerines with similar behavioral ecology, separation distance pertains to nest sites or nesting colonies, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: For most passerines: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating individuals (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat.

For swallows: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 100 birds in appropriate habitat (e.g., traditional roost sites).

Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually.

EOs should not be described for species that are nomadic during nonbreeding season: e.g., Lark Bunting.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary but intended to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any area used traditionally in the nonbreeding season (used for populations that are not resident in a location year-round). Minimally, reliable observations of 10 or more individuals in appropriate habitat for 20 or more days at a time. For G1-G3 species, observations of fewer individuals could constitute an occurrence of conservation value. Sites used during migration should be documented under the 'migratory stopover' location use class.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is necessarily arbitrary but attempts to balance the high mobility of birds with the need for occurrences of reasonable spatial scope. Note that a population's roost sites and foraging areas are parts of the same occurrence, even if they are more than 5 km apart.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Nonmigratory
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a particular location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in or near appropriate habitat.

These occurrence specifications are used for nonmigratory populations of passerine birds.

Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and breeding-season foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Blue jays have small summer home ranges but fly up to 4 kilometers to harvest mast (Tarvin and Woolfenden 1999). Flocks of pinyon jays range over 21-29 square kilometers (Ligon 1971, Balda and Bateman 1971); nesting and foraging areas may be widely separated. Tricolored blackbirds forage in flocks that range widely to more than 15 kilometers from the nesting colony (Beedy and Hamilton 1999).

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: These specs pertain to nonmigratory species.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 02Feb1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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