Gentiana alba - Muhl. ex Nutt.
Yellow Gentian
Other English Common Names: Plain Gentian, White Prairie Gentian
Other Common Names: plain gentian
Synonym(s): Gentiana flavida Gray
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Gentiana alba Muhl. ex Nutt. (TSN 29965)
French Common Names: gentiane blanche
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.139021
Element Code: PDGEN06020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Gentian Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Gentianales Gentianaceae Gentiana
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Gentiana alba
Taxonomic Comments: SY= G. flavida per Mike Homoya (INHP) and per John Kartesz.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Apr1984
Global Status Last Changed: 16Apr1984
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (04Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (S1), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (S2), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S2), Kentucky (S1S2), Maryland (SNR), Michigan (S1), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S1), North Carolina (SH), Ohio (S2), Oklahoma (S1), Pennsylvania (SH), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Ontario (S1)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: E (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Endangered (26Nov2010)
Comments on COSEWIC: This showy perennial exists in Canada as a single small population within a remnant oak savannah habitat in southwestern Ontario. The small population size and impacts from potential threats such as increased shading, trampling, and genetic contamination through hybridization with a common native species of gentian, places the species at on-going risk.
Designated Endangered in April 1991. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2001 and November 2010.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Highly threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, and forest management practices (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MD, MI, MN, MO, NC, NE, OH, OK, PA, WI, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Benton (05007)
IN Crawford (18025), Franklin (18047), Harrison (18061), Jasper (18073), Lake (18089), Noble (18113)*, Perry (18123), Porter (18127), Ripley (18137), Tippecanoe (18157)*
KS Cherokee (20021)*, Douglas (20045), Jefferson (20087)*, Leavenworth (20103)*, Shawnee (20177)*
KY Butler (21031)*, Fleming (21069), Franklin (21073), Henry (21103), Lewis (21135), Nicholas (21181), Robertson (21201), Rowan (21205), Warren (21227)*
MI Cass (26027), Kalamazoo (26077)*, Kent (26081)*, St. Clair (26147)*, St. Joseph (26149)*, Washtenaw (26161)
NE Nemaha (31127)*, Richardson (31147)
OH Adams (39001), Athens (39009), Gallia (39053), Union (39159)
OK Adair (40001)
PA Blair (42013)*, Bucks (42017)*, Butler (42019)*, Centre (42027)*, Clearfield (42033)*, Huntingdon (42061)*, Lehigh (42077)*, Lycoming (42081)*
WI Brown (55009), Buffalo (55011), Calumet (55015), Chippewa (55017)*, Columbia (55021), Crawford (55023), Dane (55025), Dunn (55033), Eau Claire (55035), Fond Du Lac (55039), Grant (55043), Green (55045), Iowa (55049), Jefferson (55055), Kenosha (55059)*, La Crosse (55063), Lafayette (55065), Manitowoc (55071)*, Milwaukee (55079), Monroe (55081), Outagamie (55087)*, Pepin (55091), Polk (55095), Racine (55101), Richland (55103), Rock (55105)*, Sauk (55111), Sheboygan (55117), St. Croix (55109), Vernon (55123), Walworth (55127), Waukesha (55133)
WV Preston (54077)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+*, Lehigh (02040106)+*, Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201)+*, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+*, Upper Juniata (02050302)+*
04 Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101)+, Door-Kewaunee (04030102)+, Upper Fox (04030201)+, Lower Fox (04030204)+, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, Pike-Root (04040002)+, Milwaukee (04040003)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+, Lower Grand (04050006)+*, St. Clair (04090001)+*, Huron (04090005)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+*, Raisin (04100002)+*
05 Cheat (05020004)+*, Youghiogheny (05020006)+*, Connoquenessing (05030105)+*, Hocking (05030204)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Whitewater (05080003)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+, Licking (05100101)+, Lower Kentucky (05100205)+, Upper Green (05110001)+*, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+*, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+
07 Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Black (07040007)+*, Lower Chippewa (07050005)+, Eau Claire (07050006)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Baraboo (07070004)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Kickapoo (07070006)+, Upper Rock (07090001)+, Crawfish (07090002)+, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+, Kankakee (07120001)+, Chicago (07120003)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+
10 Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+*, Nishnabotna (10240004)+*, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Middle Kansas (10270102)+*, Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101)+*
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001)+, Spring (11070207)+*, Illinois (11110103)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • COSEWIC 2001. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the White Prairie Gentian Gentiana alba in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 13 pp. (www.sararegistry.gc.ca/status/status_e.cfm).

  • Great Plains Flora Association (R.L. McGregor, coordinator; T.M. Barkley, ed., R.E. Brooks and E.K. Schofield, associate eds.). 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 1392 pp.

  • Heikens, A.L 2002. Conservation Assesment for Yellowish Gentian (Gentiana alba). USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/ca-overview/plants.html.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Newmaster, S.G., A. Lehela, P.W.C. Uhlig, S. McMurray and M.J. Oldham. 1998. Ontario Plant List. Forest Research Information Paper No. 123, Ontario Forest Research Institute, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. 550 pp. + appendices.

  • Oldham, M.J. 2001. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E Species Evaluation Form for White Prairie Gentian (Gentiana alba). Prepared for the Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO) by the Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario. 8 pp. + 5 appendices.

  • Pringle, J.S. 1965. The white gentian of the prairies. Michigan Botanist 4:43-47.

  • Pringle, J.S. 1967. Taxonomy of Gentiana, Section Pneumonanthae, in eastern North America. Brittonia 19(1):1-32.

  • Rupert, D.F., J.R. Brown, G.M. Allen, M.J. Oldham, and J.S. Pringle. 1987. Gentiana alba Muhl. 2 pages in Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario. Part 4. (edited by K.M. Pryer and G.W. Argus). National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Ontario.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Wade, Kimberly. 1990. The Status of the Gentiana alba Population at Post Oak-Cedar Nature Preserve, 1987-1988. A Report to the Division of Nature Preserves, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. 8 pp.

  • Waldron, G.E. 1991. Status report on the white prairie gentian GENTIANA ALBA Muhl.. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 26 pp.

  • Waldron, G.E. 2000. Update COSEWIC Status Report on White Prairie Gentain (Gentiana alba). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 16 pp.

  • Wilbur, R.L. 1989. The correct scientific name of the pale, yellow or white gentian of the Eastern United States. Sida 13(2):161-165.

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