Gastrophryne olivacea - (Hallowell, 1856 [1857])
Great Plains Narrow-mouthed Toad
Other English Common Names: Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad, Great Plains narrowmouth toad
Synonym(s): Engystoma olivaceum ;Gastrophryne areolata ;Microhyla olivacea
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Gastrophryne olivacea (Hallowell, 1856) (TSN 173468)
Spanish Common Names: Sapo-boca Angosta Oliváceo
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102436
Element Code: AAABE01020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Frogs and Toads
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Anura Microhylidae Gastrophryne
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Gastrophryne olivacea
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Apr2002
Global Status Last Changed: 24Oct2001
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Nov1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S3), Arkansas (S2), Colorado (S1), Kansas (S5), Missouri (S3S4), Nebraska (S2), New Mexico (S1), Oklahoma (S5), Texas (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species occurs from southern Nebraska, southeastern Colorado, and southern Arizona (Sullivan et al. 1996), in the United States, to Sonora and coastal Sinaloa and Nayarit in Pacific Mexico. Inland it occurs from Sonora eastward to central Chihuahua through Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, extreme east San Luis Potosí and adjacent Veracruz in Mexico.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: Represented by many and/or large occurrences throughout most of the range (Nelson 1972).

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but likely exceeds 100,000. In Texas, can be abundant in grassland and desert habitats (Bartlett and Bartlett 1999).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats have been identified for this species. However global climatic changes can affect seasonal arid cycles in parts of its range.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) This species occurs from southern Nebraska, southeastern Colorado, and southern Arizona (Sullivan et al. 1996), in the United States, to Sonora and coastal Sinaloa and Nayarit in Pacific Mexico. Inland it occurs from Sonora eastward to central Chihuahua through Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, extreme east San Luis Potosí and adjacent Veracruz in Mexico.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, AZ, CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Franklin (05047), Sebastian (05131)
AZ Maricopa (04013), Pima (04019), Pinal (04021), Santa Cruz (04023)
CO Baca (08009), Las Animas (08071)
NE Gage (31067), Webster (31181)
NM Union (35059)
OK Atoka (40005), Cherokee (40021), Cimarron (40025), Ellis (40045), Marshall (40095), Muskogee (40101), Payne (40119)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Middle Republican (10250016)+, Middle Big Blue (10270202)+, Lower Big Blue (10270205)+
11 Cimarron headwaters (11040001)+, Upper Cimarron (11040002)+, Lower Cimarron (11050003)+, Lower Canadian-Deer (11090201)+, Upper Beaver (11100101)+, Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102)+, Illinois (11110103)+, Frog-Mulberry (11110201)+, Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202)+, Lake Texoma (11130210)+, Muddy Boggy (11140103)+
15 Upper Santa Cruz (15050301)+, Lower Santa Cruz (15050303)+, Brawley Wash (15050304)+, Santa Rosa Wash (15050306)+, Rio Sonoyta (15080102)+, Rio De La Concepcion (15080200)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Lays up to about 600 eggs after heavy rains in spring or summer. Aquatic larvae hatch in a couple days, metamorphose into terrestrial form in 20-30 days. Males may breed more than once annually. Sexually mature in 1-2 years.
Ecology Comments: Found in supposed mutualistic association with tarantulas in some areas.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates variable distance between breeding pools and adjacent nonbreeding terrestrial habitats.
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Pool
Palustrine Habitat(s): TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Desert, Grassland/herbaceous, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: This species inhabits semi-arid and arid lowlands such as mesquite and shrublands. It is also known from grasslands, rocky wooded hills, marsh edges, near springs, streams, and rain pools, river floodplains, scrub desert, and cultivated fields. It hides in rotten logs and stumps, burrows, and under rocks and other cover when inactive. Eggs and larvae develop in temporary pools formed by heavy rains and larger ponds that dry up in some years.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Metamorphosed toads eat almost exclusively ants. Larvae eat suspended matter, organic debris, algae, and plant tissue.
Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Most active at night after spring and summer rains. May be active all year in south.
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 4 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Narrowmouth Toads (Microhylids)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy major highway such that toads rarely if ever cross successfully; urban development dominated by buildings and pavement; the largest, widest, fast-flowing rivers.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Though little information is available, movements appear to be limited. Fitch (1956) determined that home range size of Gastrophryne olivacea in Kansas generally was less than 120 m in diameter (often much less). However, Fitch noted that individuals sometimes move through unsuitable habitat from their home range to breeding ponds, suggesting that these frogs sometimes are more mobile than home range data might imply. In northern Florida, G. carolinensis migrated up to 914 m from the nearest breeding pool (Dodd and Cade 1998); movements between a pond and upland habitat were nonrandom, but narrow corridors did not appear to be used (Dodd and Cade 1998). Given that dispersal distances likely exceed annual migration distances, it seems unlikely that locations separated by a gap of less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent occurrences over the long term.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Apr2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Apr1986
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Bartlett, R. D., and P. P. Bartlett. 1999a. A field guide to Texas reptiles & amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. xviii + 331 pp.

  • Bartlett, R. D., and P. P. Bartlett. 1999b. A field guide to Florida reptiles and amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. xvi + 278 pp.

  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • COLLINS, J.T. 1982. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES IN KANSAS. UNIV.KANS.MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.EDUCA.SERIES NO.8.

  • CONANT, R. 1975. A FIELD GUIDE TO REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OFEASTERN AND CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA.

  • Collins, J. T. 1982. Amphibians and reptiles in Kansas. Second edition. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 8. xiii + 356 pp.

  • Collins, J. T. 1993. Amphibians and reptiles in Kansas. Third edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Public Education Series No. 13. xx + 397 pp.

  • Conant, R. and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 450 pp.

  • DIXON, JAMES R. 1987. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF TEXAS, WITH KEYS, TAXONOMIC SYNOPSES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND DISTRIBUTION MAPS. TEXAS A& M UNIV. PRESS, COLLEGE STATION. xii + 434 pp.

  • Degenhardt, W. G., C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price. 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. xix + 431 pp.

  • Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.

  • Frost, D. R., R. W. McDiarmid, and J. R. Mendelson III. 2008. Anura: Frogs. IN B. I. Crother (ed.), Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, pp. 2-12 SSAR Herpetological Circular 37.

  • GARRETT, JUDITH M. AND DAVID G. BARKER. 1987. A FIELD GUIDE TO REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF TEXAS. TEXAS MONTHLY PRESS, AUSTIN. xi + 225 pp.

  • GEHLBACH, FREDERICK R. 1991. THE EAST-WEST TRANSITION ZONE OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES IN CENTRAL TEXAS: A BIOGEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS. TEXAS J. SCI. 43(4):415-427.

  • Hammerson, G. A. 1982. Amphibians and Reptiles in Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver. vii + 131 pp.

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