Gallinula galeata - (Lichtenstein, 1818)
Common Gallinule
Other English Common Names: common gallinule
Other Common Names: Galinha-d´Água, Frango-d´Água
Synonym(s): Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 176284)
French Common Names: Gallinule poule-d'eau
Spanish Common Names: Gallineta Frente Roja, Ñahana
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.872346
Element Code: ABNME13030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Gruiformes Rallidae Gallinula
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). Chesser, R.T., R.C. Banks, F.K. Barker, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2011. Fifty-second supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 128(3):600-613.
Concept Reference Code: A11AOU01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Gallinula galeata
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly treated as conspecific with G. chloropus (Linnaeus 1758) [Common Moorhen] of Eurasia (AOU 1983, 1998), but separated on the basis of differences in vocalizations and bill and shield morphology (Constantine and The Sound Approach 2006) and mitochondrial DNA (Groenenberg et al. 2008) (AOU 2011). Formerly known as Florida Gallinule.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 25Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5B,N4N5M (26Jun2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3N,S4B), Arizona (S5), Arkansas (S2B), California (SNR), Connecticut (S2B), Delaware (S3B), District of Columbia (S2N), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Hawaii (S2), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S3B), Iowa (S2B,S2N), Kansas (S1B), Kentucky (S1S2B), Louisiana (S5), Maine (S2?B), Maryland (S2S3B), Massachusetts (S1B,S2N), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (S3B), Mississippi (S5B,S5N), Missouri (S2), Nevada (S3), New Hampshire (S2B), New Jersey (S3N), New Mexico (S4B,S4N), New York (S3S4), North Carolina (S3B,S2N), Ohio (S3), Oklahoma (S2B), Pennsylvania (S3B), Rhode Island (SHB), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S1B), Texas (S4B), Utah (S1?), Vermont (S1S2B), Virginia (S1B,S1N), West Virginia (S1B), Wisconsin (S3)
Canada New Brunswick (S1B,S1M), Nova Scotia (S1B,S1M), Ontario (S4B), Quebec (S4)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): PS
Comments on USESA: Subspecies sandvicensis of Hawaii is listed by USFWS as Endangered (Federal Register, 11 March 1967).
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: central California, northern New Mexico, Texas, Kansas, Iowa, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario, New England, and Nova Scotia south through most of South America (to northern Chile and northern Argentina), West Indies; also Hawaii and Marianas Archipelago. NORTHERN WINTER: in eastern North America primarily from South Carolina and Gulf Coast south, throughout breeding range elsewhere in Americas, occasionally northward.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Local declines are occurring due to degradation and loss of wetlands.

Short-term Trend Comments: Local declines.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: BREEDS: central California, northern New Mexico, Texas, Kansas, Iowa, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario, New England, and Nova Scotia south through most of South America (to northern Chile and northern Argentina), West Indies; also Hawaii and Marianas Archipelago. NORTHERN WINTER: in eastern North America primarily from South Carolina and Gulf Coast south, throughout breeding range elsewhere in Americas, occasionally northward.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada NB, NS, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Arkansas (05001), Chicot (05017), Desha (05041), Hempstead (05057), Howard (05061), Jefferson (05069), Lafayette (05073), Miller (05091), Pulaski (05119)
CT Fairfield (09001), Hartford (09003)*, Litchfield (09005), New Haven (09009), New London (09011)
HI Hawaii (15001), Honolulu (15003), Kauai (15007), Maui (15009)
IL Carroll (17015), Cass (17017), Coles (17029)*, Cook (17031), Douglas (17041)*, DuPage (17043), Fulton (17057), Grundy (17063), Jackson (17077)*, Kane (17089), Lake (17097), Lawrence (17101)*, Lee (17103), Madison (17119), Mason (17125)*, Massac (17127), Mchenry (17111), Monroe (17133), Perry (17145)*, Putnam (17155), Randolph (17157), St. Clair (17163), Union (17181), Whiteside (17195), Will (17197)
IN Fulton (18049), Greene (18055), La Porte (18091), Lagrange (18087), Lake (18089), Steuben (18151)
KS Barton (20009), Douglas (20045), Jefferson (20087), Stafford (20185)
KY Bath (21011), Franklin (21073)*, Henderson (21101), Muhlenberg (21177), Ohio (21183), Rowan (21205), Union (21225), Warren (21227)*
MA Barnstable (25001), Berkshire (25003), Essex (25009), Hampden (25013), Hampshire (25015)*, Middlesex (25017), Nantucket (25019)*, Plymouth (25023), Worcester (25027)
MD Anne Arundel (24003), Baltimore (city) (24510), Caroline (24011), Frederick (24021), Howard (24027)*, Montgomery (24031)*, Talbot (24041)
MI Arenac (26011), Baraga (26013), Bay (26017), Charlevoix (26029), Clinton (26037), Huron (26063), Ingham (26065), Isabella (26073), Jackson (26075), Mason (26105), Monroe (26115)*, Roscommon (26143), Saginaw (26145), St. Clair (26147), Washtenaw (26161), Wayne (26163)
MN Anoka (27003), Becker (27005), Big Stone (27011)*, Brown (27015), Chisago (27025), Dakota (27037)*, Douglas (27041), Freeborn (27047)*, Grant (27051)*, Hennepin (27053), Houston (27055), Jackson (27063)*, Kandiyohi (27067), Meeker (27093), Nobles (27105), Pope (27121)*, Ramsey (27123)*, Scott (27139), Sherburne (27141), Stevens (27149)*, Swift (27151)*, Todd (27153), Traverse (27155)*, Wabasha (27157), Waseca (27161)*, Washington (27163), Watonwan (27165), Winona (27169)
MO Adair (29001), Bollinger (29017), Boone (29019), Buchanan (29021), Chariton (29041), Holt (29087), Pike (29163), Pulaski (29169), St. Charles (29183), Wayne (29223)
NH Coos (33007), Merrimack (33013), Rockingham (33015), Strafford (33017)
OK Alfalfa (40003), Atoka (40005)*, Blaine (40011), Bryan (40013)*, Caddo (40015), Canadian (40017), Carter (40019)*, Choctaw (40023)*, Cleveland (40027), Comanche (40031)*, Dewey (40043), Garfield (40047), Garvin (40049)*, Grady (40051), Jefferson (40067)*, Johnston (40069)*, Kingfisher (40073), Lincoln (40081), Logan (40083), Love (40085)*, Major (40093), Marshall (40095)*, McClain (40087)*, McCurtain (40089), Oklahoma (40109), Pottawatomie (40125), Stephens (40137)*, Woods (40151), Woodward (40153)
PA Blair (42013), Butler (42019), Crawford (42039), Erie (42049), Lackawanna (42069), Lawrence (42073), Mercer (42085), Northumberland (42097), Somerset (42111), Venango (42121)
RI Newport (44005)*
TN Knox (47093)*, Obion (47131)*
UT Box Elder (49003)*, Utah (49049)*, Washington (49053)
VA Chesterfield (51041), Fairfax (51059)*
VT Addison (50001), Franklin (50011), Grand Isle (50013), Orleans (50019), Rutland (50021)
WV Mason (54053)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+, Merrimack (01070002)+, Concord (01070005)+, Merrimack (01070006)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+*, Chicopee (01080204)+*, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Charles (01090001)+, Cape Cod (01090002)+, Narragansett (01090004)+, Thames (01100003)+, Quinnipiac (01100004)+, Housatonic (01100005)+, Saugatuck (01100006)+
02 Long Island Sound (02030203)+, Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106)+, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+, Upper Juniata (02050302)+, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+, Choptank (02060005)+, Patuxent (02060006)+*, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+*, Monocacy (02070009)+, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+*, Lower James (02080206)+
04 Sturgeon (04020104)+, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+, Upper Grand (04050004)+, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+, Muskegon (04060102)+, Lake Michigan (04060200)+, Au Gres-Rifle (04080101)+, Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102)+, Pine (04080202)+, Shiawassee (04080203)+, Saginaw (04080206)+, Lake Huron (04080300)+, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+, Huron (04090005)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+, St. Francois River (04150500)+
05 Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+, French (05010004)+, Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+, Conemaugh (05010007)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Shenango (05030102)+, Connoquenessing (05030105)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Licking (05100101)+, Lower Kentucky (05100205)+*, Barren (05110002)+*, Middle Green (05110003)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Embarras (05120112)+*, Lower White (05120202)+, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+
06 Lower Clinch (06010207)+*
07 Sauk (07010202)+, Clearwater-Elk (07010203)+, Crow (07010204)+, Twin Cities (07010206)+, Upper Minnesota (07020001)+*, Pomme De Terre (07020002)+*, Chippewa (07020005)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Watonwan (07020010)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+*, Cannon (07040002)+*, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Root (07040008)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Shell Rock (07080202)+*, Lower Rock (07090005)+, Kishwaukee (07090006)+, Green (07090007)+, Des Moines Headwaters (07100001)+*, The Sny (07110004)+, Salt (07110007)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Kankakee (07120001)+, Chicago (07120003)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Upper Illinois (07120005)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+, Lower Fox (07120007)+, Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)+, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)+, Spoon (07130005)+, Lower Sangamon (07130008)+, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Big Muddy (07140106)+*, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)+*, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)+
08 Obion (08010202)+*, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Lower Arkansas (08020401)+, Bayou Meto (08020402)+, Boeuf (08050001)+
09 Mustinka (09020102)+*, Buffalo (09020106)+
10 Little Sioux (10230003)+, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Nodaway (10240010)+, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Delaware (10270103)+, Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Lower Grand (10280103)+, Upper Chariton (10280201)+, Upper Gasconade (10290201)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+
11 Rattlesnake (11030009)+, Cow (11030011)+, Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief (11050001)+, Lower Cimarron-Skeleton (11050002)+, Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202)+, Little (11090203)+, Middle North Canadian (11100301)+, Lower North Canadian (11100302)+, Deep Fork (11100303)+, Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207)+, Farmers-Mud (11130201)+*, Northern Beaver (11130208)+*, Lake Texoma (11130210)+*, Upper Washita (11130302)+, Middle Washita (11130303)+*, Lower Washita (11130304)+*, Bois D'arc-Island (11140101)+*, Blue (11140102)+*, Clear Boggy (11140104)+*, Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)+, Lower Little (11140109)+, Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201)+
15 Upper Virgin (15010008)+, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, Lower Virgin (15010010)+
16 Lower Bear-Malad (16010204)+*, Utah Lake (16020201)+*, Provo (16020203)+*, Curlew Valley (16020309)+*, Great Salt Lake (16020310)+*
20 Hawaii (20010000)+, Molokai (20050000)+, Oahu (20060000)+, Kauai (20070000)+, Niihau (20080000)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: A henlike, dark bird; in adults, the head and neck are black, the back brownish-olive, and the underparts slate, with a white streak on the flanks; the bill is red with a yellow tip, and there is a red forehead shield (bill and shield brownish in winter; bill dusky in juveniles); feet are large and yellow in adults, dusky in juveniles, which are paler and browner than adults (NGS 1983).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from American coot and purple gallinule in having a white streak on the sides just below the wing.
Reproduction Comments: Clutch size is 4-17 (commonly 7-12) in north, 3-6 in south. Incubation, by both sexes, lasts 18-21 days. Young are tended by both parents, independent in 5 weeks, can fly in 6-7 weeks. (Terres 1980, Harrison 1978). Immatures may help parents tend younger siblings (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Ecology Comments: Often in family groups.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Arrives in northernmost breeding areas in April, generally departs by October (Bent 1926). Generally nonmigratory in the southwestern and southeastern U.S.; northern populations make extensive migrations.
Estuarine Habitat(s): Scrub-shrub wetland
Riverine Habitat(s): Low gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Freshwater marshes, canals, quiet rivers, lakes, ponds, mangroves, primarily in areas of emergent vegetation and grassy borders; taro patches in Hawaiian Islands. Infrequently flies. Nests usually among marsh plants over water, occasionally in shrub in or near water. Builds nestlike platforms on which to brood young.
Adult Food Habits: Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats seeds, grass, rootlets, soft parts of water plants, snails, insects; feeds while walking on land and while swimming and diving in water (Terres 1980).
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Length: 36 centimeters
Weight: 334 grams
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Hunted in more than 40 states (Eddleman et al. 1988).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Coots and Moorhens

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Dispersal distances from natal sites to subsequent nesting areas are unknown (Bannor and Kiviat 2002, Brisbin et al. 2002) but likely considerable. Migratory American coot populations apparently do not exhibit strong fidelity to breeding areas (see Brisbin et al. 2002). Separation distance is arbitrary. Occurrences do not necessarily represent discrete populations or metapopulations.
Date: 20Oct2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings
Notes: Includes species in the general FULICA, GALLINULA, and PORPHYRULA.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 10 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Arbitrary separation distance; occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 28Oct2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Dec1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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