Galeandra bicarinata - G.A.Romero & P.M.Br.
Two-Keeled Hooded Orchid
Other English Common Names: Helmet Orchid
Synonym(s): Tupacamaria bicarinata (G.A.Romero & P.M.Br.) Archila
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.153106
Element Code: PMORC15020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Galeandra
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Romero, G.A. and P. M. Brown. 2000. North American Native Orchid Journal 6(2): 77-87.
Concept Reference Code: A00ROM01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Galeandra bicarinata
Taxonomic Comments: Material from the U.S. (Florida) originally identified as Galeandra beyrichii determined to be G. bicarinata (FNA 2002a).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 30Jun2014
Global Status Last Changed: 23Apr2002
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This rare terrestrial orchid occurs in hammocks in southernmost Florida and in Cuba. Only three extant sites in Florida. Threats include poaching, non-native plants, and hydrological modifications. The status of the Cuban site(s) are unknown. There are likely less than 100 individuals across the three Florida sites found in two conservation areas, Castellow Hammock Park and Everglades National Park.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs in Miami Dade County in southern Florida, U.S.A. and Oriente Province (presumably Santiago de Cuba) of Cuba (Ackerman 2014, NatureServe 2014).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Three extant sites in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Details of the species occurrence in Cuba is unknown.

Population Size Comments: It is estimated that 50 plants are in the Everglades National Park, 36 from Castellow Hammock Park, and a high count of 6 are reported Fuchs Hammock Preserve

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include poaching, invasion of non-native plants (including Bischofia javanica, Jasminum fluminenseI, Schefflera actinophylla, and Oeceoclades maculata which were documented near or in plots where Galeandra bicarinata occurs), and hydrological modifications including restoration efforts in the Everglades (Gann and Woodmansee 2013).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs in Miami Dade County in southern Florida, U.S.A. and Oriente Province (presumably Santiago de Cuba) of Cuba (Ackerman 2014, NatureServe 2014).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.

National Distribution Outside of U.S. & Canada: Cuba

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Miami-Dade (12086)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Everglades (03090202)+, Florida Southeast Coast (03090206)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood
Habitat Comments: Growing in decomposed leaf litter of tropical hardwood forests, with 90-100% canopy cover, on hammocks (Correll 1950, Flora of North America 2002a, Gann et al. 2009).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Nov2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Ham, V. (2002), rev. A. Treher (2013)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Nov2013
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Treher

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Ackerman, J.D. 2014. Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, vol. 109. The New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, New York. 625 pp.

  • Archila, F.M. 2013. Note taxinomique sur le genre Tupacamaria (Orchidaceae, Catasetinae). Richardiana 13: 227.

  • CORRELL, D.S. & H.B. CORRELL. 1982. FLORA OF THE BAHAMA ARCHIPELAGO (INCLUDING THE TURKS & CAICOS ISLANDS). J. CRAMER, GERMANY. 1692 + 50 PAGES

  • Correll, D.S. 1950 [1978]. Native orchids of North America north of Mexico. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 400 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Gann, G.D., K.N. Hines, S. Saha, and K.A. Bradley. 2009. Rare plant monitoring and restoration on Long Pine Key, Everglades National Park: Final Report, Year 5. Final report sumitted to Everglades National Park, Homestead, Florida by The Institute for Regional Conservation.

  • Gann, G.D., and S.W. Woodmansee. 2006-2013. Species Account Update, Floristic Inventory of South Florida Database Online. The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida. Available online: http://regionalconservation.org/.

  • LONG, R.W. & O. LAKELA. 1971. A FLORA OF TROPICAL FLORIDA. BANYAN BOOKS; ORIGINAL PUBLISHED BY UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI PRESS, MIAMI, FL.

  • LUER, CARLYLE A. 1972. THE NATIVE ORCHIDS OF FLORIDA. THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN.

  • Romero, G.A. and P. M. Brown. 2000. North American Native Orchid Journal 6(2): 77-87.

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