Hylogomphus viridifrons - (Hine, 1901)
Green-faced Clubtail
Synonym(s): Gomphus viridifrons Hine, 1901
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Gomphus viridifrons Hine, 1901 (TSN 101672)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.118518
Element Code: IIODO08460
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Dragonflies and Damselflies
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Odonata Gomphidae Hylogomphus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Paulson, D.R. and S.W. Dunkle. 1999. A Checklist of North American Odonata. Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound Occasional Paper, 56: 86 pp. Available: http://www.ups.edu/x7015.xml.
Concept Reference Code: A99PAU01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Gomphus viridifrons
Taxonomic Comments: Molecular phylogenetic analysis and reclassification of Gomphidae resulted in the recognition of additional genera based on nuclear, mitochondrial, and ribosomal sequences. In this new scheme, Gomphus in the strict sense now does not occur in North America, but is restricted to Eurasia (Ware et al. 2016).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07May2007
Global Status Last Changed: 26Mar2007
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: A widespread, but very localized, fragmented, mostly somewhat rare, species that requires very good water quality. More information on number and quality of occurrences and threats would be needed to resolve this rank to either G3 or (less likely) G4.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3 (08May1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (28Jul2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3?), Indiana (S1S2), Kentucky (S2S3), Maryland (S1), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), New Jersey (S3), New York (S1), North Carolina (S1), Ohio (S2), Pennsylvania (S2), Tennessee (S3?), Virginia (S2), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Ontario (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Based on the Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) of the United States Website visited in May 2007: northeastern New York to Minnesota, then mostly in the mountains and Ohio Valley from Ohio and Indiana to northern Alabama. Apparently very local through most of its range with records from slightly under 50 counties. Northeastern Minnesota and one adjacent county in Wisconsin and perhaps Kentucky may be the only regions where it is somewhat widespread.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species has been searched for in PA, VA, and WI. MI, NC, and TN should be given priority for statewide surveys. Known from slightly over 40 counties, generally one or few occurrences in each, and some probably not extant.

Population Size: 2500 - 10,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Probably less than 250 mi (400 km) of occurrences.

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Impoundments, channelization, dredging, siltation, agricultural non-point pollution, municipal and industrial pollution, etc...

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Unimpounded streams with very high water quality continue to become degraded or destroyed; very few are protected.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-90%

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Apparently sensitive to pollution, siltation, and/or low levels of dissolved oxygen.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Conduct statewide status surveys - especially in MI, NC, and TN.

Protection Needs: Work with local, state, and federal agencies to protect water quality at known occurrences.

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Based on the Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) of the United States Website visited in May 2007: northeastern New York to Minnesota, then mostly in the mountains and Ohio Valley from Ohio and Indiana to northern Alabama. Apparently very local through most of its range with records from slightly under 50 counties. Northeastern Minnesota and one adjacent county in Wisconsin and perhaps Kentucky may be the only regions where it is somewhat widespread.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, IN, KY, MD, MI, MN, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, TN, VA, WI, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IN Harrison (18061)
MD Allegany (24001), Frederick (24021), Washington (24043)
NC Ashe (37009), Macon (37113), Madison (37115)
NJ Sussex (34037)
NY Cattaraugus (36009), Orange (36071), Sullivan (36105)
OH Adams (39001), Ashland (39005), Ashtabula (39007), Lake (39085), Licking (39089), Monroe (39111), Washington (39167)
PA Allegheny (42003)*, Armstrong (42005), Beaver (42007)*, Clarion (42031), Elk (42047), Fayette (42051)*, Forest (42053), Jefferson (42065), Pike (42103), Wayne (42127)
VA Botetourt (51023)*, Buchanan (51027), Carroll (51035)*, Dickenson (51051), Floyd (51063), Grayson (51077)*, Russell (51167), Scott (51169)*, Wise (51195)
WV Grant (54023)*, Greenbrier (54025), Hampshire (54027), Marshall (54051)*, Pendleton (54071)*, Pocahontas (54075), Raleigh (54081), Randolph (54083), Ritchie (54085)*, Summers (54089)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Upper Delaware (02040101)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+, Upper James (02080201)+*
04 Grand (04110004)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Clarion (05010005)+, Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+, Tygart Valley (05020001)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+*, Upper Ohio (05030101)+*, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)+*, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Little Kanawha (05030203)+*, Mohican (05040002)+, Licking (05040006)+, Upper New (05050001)+, Middle New (05050002)+, Greenbrier (05050003)+, Lower New (05050004)+, Gauley (05050005)+, Upper Levisa (05070202)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+
06 North Fork Holston (06010101)+*, Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+, Upper Clinch (06010205)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: clubtail dragonfly
General Description: A small but robust mostly black dragonfly with a clear gray-green face and sides on the thorax. Larva is flat and brown without dorsal abdominal spines.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Male penis hood is a narrow triangle as tall as the posterior hamule, female subgenital plate black and as long as abdominal segment 9, with 2 pointed lobes. (Needham & Westfall, 1955; Carle, 1979). Larva needs to be described in detail.
Ecology Comments: Habitat rocky streams with high quality oxygenated water.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient
Habitat Comments: Found in small to large moderate-gradient rivers; free flowing with high water quality; larvae burrow in silt, adults forage in trees.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Larvae overwinter, flight season early May to late July.
Length: 4.5 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Determine tolerance levels to pollutants.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: River-breeding Dragonfly Odonates

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens ideally with evidence of on-site breeding (teneral adults, mating pairs, territorial males, ovipositing females, larvae, or exuviae) at a given location with potential breeding habitat. Although oviposition may not necessarily yield progeny that survive to adulthood (Fincke, 1992) and movements resembling oviposition may not necessarily result in egg deposition (Okazawa and Ubukata, 1978; Martens, 1992; 1994), presence of on-site oviposition is here accepted as an indicator of a minimum element occurrence because the time and effort involved in determining success of emergence is beyond the scope of the general survey. As adults of some species might disperse moderate distances (see below), only sites with available larval habitat can be considered appropriate for a minimum occurrence. Single, non-breeding adults captured away from potential suitable breeding habitat should not be treated as element occurrences. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. A photograph may be accepted as documentation of an element occurrence for adults only (nymphs and subimagos are too difficult to identify in this manner) provided that the photograph shows diagnostic features that clearly delineate the species from other species with similar features. Sight records, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for new element occurrences. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Barriers: Within catchments there are likely no significant barriers to movement of sexually mature adults between microhabitats, with even extensive sections of inappropriate waterway or major obstructions to flow being readily traversed by adults within the flight season. Dams large enough to cause extensive pooling may serve as separation barriers.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Odonate dispersal capability has been poorly documented with long-range movements inferred from observations in transit and analogy with other insects (Conrad et al., 1999; Corbet, 1999). Adults are known to wander, some over great distances (not so for damselflies). Mass migration over great distances is not herein considered when drafting separation distances as such behavior is limited to few species (e.g. Anax junius, Libellula quadrimaculata and other Libellula spp., Sympetrum spp.), occurs unpredictably and infrequently (10 year cycles for L. quadrimaculata), are unidirectional or intergenerational (Freeland et al., 2003), or occurs under unusual circumstances such as irritation by trematode parasites (Dumont and Hinnekint, 1973) or during major weather events (Moskowitz et al., 2001; Russell et al., 1998).

Corbet (1999) estimated the average distance traveled for a commuting flight (between reproductive and roosting or foraging sites) to be less than 200 m but sometimes greater than one km. Distance traveled is generally greatest for river-breeding odonates, but can vary considerably between taxa (Corbet, 1999). Both D. Paulson and S. Valley (personal communication, 1998) suggest a population should be defined by the river drainage in which it is found, but drainages or catchments vary by orders of magnitude in size and isolation so it is not obvious how to effect this recommendation.

The combination of breeding dispersal in the range of a few km with the potential for periodic long distance dispersal providing landscapes are not fragmented has led to the somewhat arbitrary assignment of separation distances at 10 km (unsuitable and suitable).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: The few studies determining area of adult foraging habitat surrounding breeding sites have indicated a range of 30 meters to 300 meters [see Briggs (1993) for Enallagma laterale; Corbet (1999) for Nesciothemis nigeriensis and Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis; Beukeman (2002) for Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis; and Samways and Steytler (1996) for Chorolestes tessalatus]. As a result, an element occurrence should include the breeding site and surrounding pond or upland habitat extending 500 m in a radius from the breeding site.
Date: 02Jun2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: River breeding dragonflies:
ANISOPTERA: Aeshnidae: Aeshna dugesi, A. persephone, A. walkeri, Anax strenuus, A. walsinghami, Basiaeschna, Boyeria, Oplonaeschna; Cordulegastridae: Cordulegaster diadema, C. dorsalis, C. maculata; Corduliidae: Helocordulia, Somatochlora elongata, S. ensigera, S. filosa, S. forcipata, S. georgiana, S. linearis, S. margarita, S. minor, S. ozarkensis, S. tenebrosa, S. walshii; Gomphidae: Dromogomphus, Erpetogomphus, Gomphus (Gomphurus): all species, Gomphus (Gomphus): all species, Gomphus (Hylogomphus): all species, Gomphus (Stenogomphus): all species, Gomphus (Phanogomphus) borealis, G. descriptus, G. hodgesi, G. lividus, G. minutus, G. quadricolor, Hagenius, Lanthus, Neurocordulia, Octogomphus, Ophiogomphus, Phyllogomphoides albrighti, Progomphus borealis, P. obscurus, Remartina, Stylogomphus, Stylurus; Libellulidae: Brechmorhoga, Dythemis, Macrothemis, Nesogonia, Paltothemis, Pseudoleon; Macromiidae: Macromia

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07May2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Vogt, T. E. (1992-10-23), Schweitzer, D.F. (update May 2007)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08May2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Anonymous and Schweitzer, D.F.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Abbott, J.C. 2007. OdonataCentral: An online resource for the odonata of North America. Austin, Texas. Available at http://odonatacentral.com (accessed February 28, 2007).

  • Carle, F.L. 1979b. Two new Gomphus (Odonata:Gomphidae) from eastern North America with adult keys to the subgenus Hylogomphus. Annals Entomol. Soc. of America 72(3): 418-426.

  • Carle, Frank Louis. December 1994. A Survey of the Odonata of the Delaware River and its Tributaries.

  • Curry, J.R. 2001. Dragonflies of Indiana. Everbest Printing, Ltd.: China. xiv + 303 pp.

  • Donnelly, T. W. 1992. The odonata of New York State. Bulletin of American Odonatology. 1(1):1-27.

  • Donnelly, T.W. 1999. The dragonflies and damselflies of New York. Prepared for the 1999 International Congress of Odonatology and First Symposium of the Worldwide Dragonfly Association. July 11-16, 1999. Colgate University, Hamilton, New York. 39 pp.

  • Donnelly, T.W. 2004. The Odonata of New York State. Unpublished data. Binghamton, NY.

  • Dunkle, S.W. 2000. Dragonflies Through Binoculars. A Field Guide to Dragonflies of North America. Oxford University Press: New York, New York. 266 pp.

  • LeGrand, H., J. Petranka, M.A. Shields, and T.E. Howard, Jr. 2017. The Dragonflies and Damselflies of North Carolina, Eighth Approximation, Version 8.1. N.C. Division of Parks and Recreation. Online. Available: http://dpr.ncparks.gov/odes/PDFs/8th_ver_8.1.pdf

  • May, Michael L. and Frank L. Carle. 1996-10-15. An annotated list of the Odonata of New Jersey. With an appendix on nomenclature in the Genus Gomphus. Bulletin of American Odonatology Vol. 4, No. 1 p. 1-35.

  • Mead, K. 2003. Dragonflies of the North Woods. Kollath-Stensaas Publishing, Duluth, MN. 2003 pp.

  • Mead, K. 2003. Dragonflies of the North Woods. Kollath-Stensaas Publishing, Duluth, Minnesota. 203 pp.

  • Natural Resources Commission. 2014. Roster of Indiana Animals, Insects, and Plants That Are Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Rare. Information Bulletin #2 (Sixth Amendment. 20pp.

  • Needham, J.G. and M.J. Westfall, Jr. 1954. A Manual of the Dragonflies of North America (Anisoptera). University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 615 pp.

  • Needham, J.G., M.J. Westfall, Jr., and M.L. May. 2000. Dragonflies of North America. Revised edition. Scientific Publishers: Gainesville, Florida. 939 pp.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2007. Biotics Database. Albany, NY.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2014. Database of odonate records by county for northeastern U.S. states. Data contributors available: http://nynhp.org/OdonataNE.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. No date. New York dragonfly and damselfly survey database. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

  • New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 2005. Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy Planning Database. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

  • Nikula, B., J.L. Loose, and M.R. Burne. 2003. A field guide to the dragonflies and damselflies of Massachusetts. Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Westborough, MA. 197 pp.

  • Oldham, M.J. 2000. Green-faced Clubtail (Gomphus viridifrons) in Ontario. Pages 51-52, in "Ontario Odonata Volume 1" (P.M. Catling, C. Jones and P. Pratt, editors), Toronto Entomologists' Association, Toronto, Ontario.

  • Paulson, D.R. and S.W. Dunkle. 1999. A Checklist of North American Odonata. Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound Occasional Paper, 56: 86 pp. Available: http://www.ups.edu/x7015.xml.

  • Paulson, D.R., and S.W. Dunkle. 2009. A checklist of North American Odonata including English name, etymology, type locality, and distribution. Originally published as Occasional Paper No. 56, Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, June 1999; completely revised March 2009. Online. Available: http://www.odonatacentral.org/docs/NA_Odonata_Checklist_2009.pdf.

  • Soltesz, Ken. 1992. Proposed Heritage ranks for New York State odonata. Unpublished report for New York Natural Heritage Program. 37 pp.

  • Swinford, Thomas O. 1997. Checklist of Status of Indiana Odonata. List. 7 pp.

  • Swinford, Thomas O. 2015. Checklist and Status of Indiana Odonata. 8 pp.

  • Swinford, Tom. 1995. Checklist and Status of Indiana Odonata. List. 7 pp.

  • Ware, J.L., E. Pilgrim, M.L. May, T.W. Donnelly, and K. Tennessen. 2016. Phylogenetic relationships of North American Gomphidae and their close relatives. Systematic Entomology 2016:1-10.

  • White, E.L., P.D Hunt, M.D. Schlesinger, J.D. Corser, and P.G. deMaynadier. 2015. Prioritizing Odonata for conservation action in the northeastern USA. Freshwater Science 34(3):1079-1093.

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