Fusconaia flava - (Rafinesque, 1820)
Wabash Pigtoe
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Fusconaia flava (Rafinesque, 1820) (TSN 80041) ;Fusconaia undata Barnes (TSN 80057)
French Common Names: fusconaia jaune
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.121049
Element Code: IMBIV17070
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Mussels
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoida Unionidae Fusconaia
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Fusconaia flava
Taxonomic Comments: Sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA revealed two divergent clades, one consisting of specimens located throughout the upper and lower Mississippi River drainage and the Red River (Canada) and Lake Erie drainages as well as all Fusconaia cerina specimens (the study utilized material from the Sipsey River, Alabama, and Yellow Creek, Mississippi); and one consisting of specimens located in the far western portion of the range that may comprise an undescribed species, although the authors admit more morphological and genetic studies are needed to determine the precise taxonomic status of this latter clade (Burdick and White, 2007).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Apr2009
Global Status Last Changed: 25Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This species is widely distributed along the entire Mississippi drainage from western New York to eastern Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota, south to Texas and Louisiana and Tombigbee River in Alabama. In Canada, it occurs in the Lake Huron, Lake St. Clair, and Lake Erie drainage basins of Ontario, and in the Red River- Nelson River system of Manitoba. It is generally considered stabel throughout most of its range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (16Jul1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (03Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (S5), Illinois (S4), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S2), Kansas (S3), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S4), Nebraska (SNR), New York (S2), North Dakota (S4), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S4), Pennsylvania (S2S3), South Dakota (S1), Tennessee (S4S5), Texas (S1S2), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Manitoba (S3), Ontario (S2S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
American Fisheries Society Status: Currently Stable (01Jan1993)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species is distributed along the entire Mississippi drainage from western New York to eastern Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota, south to Texas and Louisiana and Tombigbee River in Alabama (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998; Howells et al., 1996). In Canada, it occurs in the Lake Huron, Lek St. Clair, and Lake Erie drainage basins of Ontario, and in the Red River- Nelson River system of Manitoba (Clarke, 1981).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is widespread and occasionally abundant in Minnesota (Sietman, 2003); incl. Red River of the North (Graf, 1997; Cvancara, 1970). In South Dakota, it is known from the Minnesota River and tributaries and Vermillion River (Backlund, 2000) with shells in the James (Perkins and Backlund, 2003) and Big Sioux (Skadsen and Perkins, 2000). In Texas, it is in the Red, Sabine, Neches, Trinity, and San Jacinto Rivers in the east (Howells et al., 1996); somewhat common in the Village Creek drainage of Hardin/Tyler/Polk Cos. (Bordelon and Harrel, 2004). Oklahoma distribution: Blue, Little (Vaughn and Taylor, 1999), Mountain Fork (Spooner and Vaughn, 2007), Poteau, Illinois, Boggy, Kiamichi, Verdigris, Neosho, and Chikaskia rivers (Branson, 1982; Vaughn, 2000); Verdigris (Boeckman and Bidwell, 2008). It is in the Spring River drainage, Kansas and Missouri (Branson, 1966). In the Little Blue River basin it is weathered shells in the Kansas and Nebraska portions (Hoke, 2004). In Kansas, it is scattered in the Neosho, Verdigris, Marais des Cygnes, and Spring River basins and historic in the S Fork Big Nemaha basin (Missouri drainage), lower Republican River, Smoky Hill River basin (Kansas drainage), and Ninnescah and Chikaskia Rivers (Arkansas drainage) (Couch, 1997); also Wakarusa (Tiemann, 2006). In Illinois, it is statewide (locally abundant) but sporadic in the extreme S (Cummings and Mayer, 1997; Schanzle and Cummings, 1991; Sietman et al., 2001; Tiemann et al., 2005). Indiana: Tippecanoe (Cummings and Berlocher, 1990), East Fork White (Harmon, 1992), Muscatatuck, (Harmon, 1989), St. Joseph and Maumee (Pryor, 2005). In Wisconsin, it is very widespread and abundant (Mathiak, 1979); recently Fox basin, Illinois/Wisconsin (Schanzle et al., 2004). In Ohio, it is widespread throughout (Watters, 1992; 1995; Lyons et al., 2007; Grabarciewicz, 2008; Hoggarth et al., 2007) incl. Ohio and Lawrentian drainages and W Erie basin (Watters et al., 2009). In Mississippi, it is in the Mississippi River N and S, Big Black, and Yazoo drainages (Jones et al., 2005). Vidrine (1993) includes throughout central and N Louisiana. It is in the Poteau (Vaughn and Spooner, 2004), Ouachita (Posey et al., 1996; Posey, 1997), St. Francis (Ahlstedt and Jenkinson, 1991), Cache and White Rivers, Arkansas (Christian, 1995; Christian et al., 2005); lower Arkansas (Gordon, 1985) and Upper and Middle White (Gordon, 1982). In Tennessee, it occurs in the Cumberland, Stones, Harpeth, Hatchie, and lower Tennessee Rivers and rare in Reelfoot Lake (Obion Co.) (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998); but not Alabama (13 km from the border at Pickwick Dam, Tennessee) (Williams et al., 2008). It has been collected in Kentucky in the Red (Clark, 1988), Middle Green (Gordon, 1991) and Barren Rivers (Cochran and Layzer, 1993), but is generally statewide (Cicerello and Schuster, 2003). In the Big Blue system of SE Nebraska and NE Kansas it is sub-fossil only (mostly KS) and may be extirpated (Hoke, 2005). In West Virginia, it occurs in the Upper Ohio/Kanawha (Zeto et al., 1987) and Mud Rivers (Guyandotte drainage) (Schmidt and Zeto, 1986). It was recently collected from 5 of 38 sites (3 as dead or weathered only) in the Tonawanda Creek basin (Niagara River drainage) in western New York (Marangelo and Strayer, 2000). It occurs in Lakes Erie, Huron, St. Clair/Detroit drainages in Michigan (Strayer, 1980; Badra and Goforth, 2003), Kalamazoo River (Mulcrone and Mehlne, 2001), and S upper peninsula (Goodrich and Van der Schalie, 1939). In Canada, it is common in southwestern Ontario (Lakes Huron, St. Clair, Erie drainages), but has declined in several systems, especially the Grant River; abundant in the Ausable River and survived well in the presence of zebra mussels in the St. Clair delta; sensitive in Manitoba (Red- Nelson River systems; Assiniboine drainage (Watson, 2000); Winnipeg- Pip, 2006) but has been found fairly frequently recently (Metcalfe-Smith and Cudmore-Vokey, 2004).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some to very many (13 to >125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: It was recently documented in the Fox River basin in Illinois and Wisconsin where it was widespread and somewhat abundant (Schanzle et al., 2004).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Sietman (2003) reports the range of this species in Minnesota has recently expanded above St. Anthony Falls in the Mississippi River drainage.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This species is distributed along the entire Mississippi drainage from western New York to eastern Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota, south to Texas and Louisiana and Tombigbee River in Alabama (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998; Howells et al., 1996). In Canada, it occurs in the Lake Huron, Lek St. Clair, and Lake Erie drainage basins of Ontario, and in the Red River- Nelson River system of Manitoba (Clarke, 1981).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, ND, NE, NY, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, WI, WV
Canada MB, ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Allamakee (19005), Black Hawk (19013), Bremer (19017), Buchanan (19019), Chickasaw (19037), Clay (19041), Clayton (19043), Clinton (19045), Delaware (19055), Des Moines (19057), Dubuque (19061), Floyd (19067), Franklin (19069), Greene (19073), Hamilton (19079), Hardin (19083), Howard (19089), Jackson (19097), Johnson (19103), Jones (19105), Lee (19111), Linn (19113), Louisa (19115), Mitchell (19131), Muscatine (19139), O Brien (19141), Osceola (19143), Scott (19163)
KS Allen (20001), Anderson (20003), Bourbon (20011), Chase (20017), Chautauqua (20019), Cherokee (20021), Cowley (20035), Doniphan (20043), Elk (20049), Franklin (20059), Greenwood (20073), Labette (20099), Linn (20107), Lyon (20111), Miami (20121), Montgomery (20125), Morris (20127), Neosho (20133), Wabaunsee (20197), Wilson (20205), Woodson (20207)
ND Barnes (38003)*, Cass (38017)*, Griggs (38039)*, Nelson (38063)*, Pembina (38067)*, Ransom (38073)*, Richland (38077)*, Traill (38097)*, Walsh (38099)*
NY Cattaraugus (36009), Erie (36029), Genesee (36037), Monroe (36055), Niagara (36063)
OH Coshocton (39031), Hancock (39063), Logan (39091), Madison (39097), Montgomery (39113), Paulding (39125), Sandusky (39143), Scioto (39145), Wood (39173)
PA Allegheny (42003)*, Armstrong (42005), Beaver (42007)*, Erie (42049), Greene (42059), Indiana (42063), Warren (42123)*, Washington (42125), Westmoreland (42129)*
SD Davison (46035), Grant (46051), Hanson (46061), Hutchinson (46067), Minnehaha (46099), Yankton (46135)
TX Grayson (48181), Morris (48343), Red River (48387)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Auglaize (04100007)+, Blanchard (04100008)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)+, Niagara (04120104)+, Lake Erie (04120200)+*, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)+, Lower Genesee (04130003)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+*, Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+*, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)+, Mohican (05040002)+, Walhonding (05040003)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+
07 Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+, Flint-Henderson (07080104)+, Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+, Lower Iowa (07080209)+, Boone (07100005)+, North Raccoon (07100006)+
09 Upper Red (09020104)+*, Elm-Marsh (09020107)+*, Middle Sheyenne (09020203)+*, Lower Sheyenne (09020204)+*, Maple (09020205)+*, Sandhill-Wilson (09020301)+*, Grand Marais-Red (09020306)+*, Lower Red (09020311)+*, Lower Pembina River (09020316)+*
10 Lower James (10160011)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Little Sioux (10230003)+, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Upper Kansas (10270101)+, Middle Kansas (10270102)+, Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101)+, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+, Little Osage (10290103)+, Marmaton (10290104)+
11 Kaw Lake (11060001)+, Fall (11070102)+, Middle Verdigris (11070103)+, Caney (11070106)+, Neosho headwaters (11070201)+, Upper Cottonwood (11070202)+, Lower Cottonwood (11070203)+, Upper Neosho (11070204)+, Middle Neosho (11070205)+, Spring (11070207)+, Lower Sulphur (11140302)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Laboratory studies by Watters and O'Dee identified the silver shiner and creek chub as potential fish hosts (Triannual Unionid Report, No. 13, 1997).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, MEDIUM RIVER
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This species may be found in medium sized rivers as well as big rivers at depts up to 15 feet. A stable substrate composed of coarse sand and gravel appears most suitable but it also tolerates other substrates (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Mussels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached and/or nacre still glossy and iridescent without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Based on the separation distances outlined herein, for freshwater mussels in STANDING WATER (or backwater areas of flowing water such as oxbows and sloughs), all standing water bodies with either (1) greater than 2 km linear distance of unsuitable habitat between (i.e. lotic connections), or (2) more than 10 km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat (including lentic shoreline, linear distance across water bodies, and lentic water bodies with proper lotic connections), are considered separate element occurrences. Only the largest standing water bodies (with 20 km linear shoreline or greater) may have greater than one element occurrence within each. Multiple collection or observation locations in one lake, for example, would only constitute multiple occurrences in the largest lakes, and only then if there was some likelihood that unsurveyed areas between collections did not contain the element.

For freshwater mussels in FLOWING WATER conditions, occurrences are separated by a distance of more than 2 stream km of unsuitable habitat, or a distance of more than 10 stream km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat. Standing water between occurrences is considered suitable habitat when calculating separation distance for flowing water mussel species unless dispersal barriers (see Separation Barriers) are in place.

Several mussel species in North America occur in both standing and flowing water (see Specs Notes). Calculation of separation distance and determination of separation barriers for these taxa should take into account the environment in which the element was collected. Juvenile mussels do not follow this pattern and juveniles are typically missed by most standard sampling methods (Hastie and Cosgrove, 2002; Neves and Widlak, 1987), therefore juvenile movement is not considered when calculating separation distance.

Separation Barriers: Separation barriers within standing water bodies are based solely on separation distance (see Separation Distance-suitable, below). Separation barriers between standing water bodies and within flowing water systems include lack of lotic connections, natural barriers such as upland habitat, absence of appropriate species specific fish hosts, water depth greater than 10 meters (Cvancara, 1972; Moyle and Bacon, 1969) or anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams or other impoundments and high waterfalls.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Adult freshwater mussels are largely sedentary spending their entire lives very near to the place where they first successfully settled (Coker et al., 1921; Watters, 1992). Strayer (1999) demonstrated in field trials that mussels in streams occur chiefly in flow refuges, or relatively stable areas that displayed little movement of particles during flood events. Flow refuges conceivably allow relatively immobile mussels to remain in the same general location throughout their entire lives. Movement occurs with the impetus of some stimulus (nearby water disturbance, physical removal from the water such as during collection, exposure conditions during low water, seasonal temperature change or associated diurnal cycles) and during spawning. Movement is confined to either vertical movement burrowing deeper into sediments though rarely completely beneath the surface, or horizontal movement in a distinct path often away from the area of stimulus. Vertical movement is generally seasonal with rapid descent into the sediment in autumn and gradual reappearance at the surface during spring (Amyot and Downing, 1991; 1997). Horizontal movement is generally on the order of a few meters at most and is associated with day length and during times of spawning (Amyot and Downing, 1997). Such locomotion plays little, if any, part in the distribution of freshwater mussels as these limited movements are not dispersal mechanisms. Dispersal patterns are largely speculative but have been attributed to stream size and surface geology (Strayer, 1983; Strayer and Ralley, 1993; van der Schalie, 1938), utilization of flow refuges during flood stages (Strayer, 1999), and patterns of host fish distribution during spawning periods (Haag and Warren, 1998; Watters, 1992). Lee and DeAngelis (1997) modeled the dispersal of freshwater into unoccupied habitats as a traveling wave front with a velocity ranging from 0.87 to 2.47 km/year (depending on mussel life span) with increase in glochidial attachment rate to fish having no effect on wave velocity.

Nearly all mussels require a host or hosts during the parasitic larval portion of their life cycle. Hosts are usually fish, but a few exceptional species utilize amphibians as hosts (Van Snik Gray et al., 2002; Howard, 1915) or may metamorphose without a host (Allen, 1924; Barfield et al., 1998; Lefevre and Curtis, 1911; 1912). Haag and Warren (1998) found that densities of host generalist mussels (using a variety of hosts from many different families) and displaying host specialists (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but mussel females have behavioral modifications to attract hosts to the gravid female) were independent of the densities of their hosts. Densities of non-displaying host specialist mussels (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but without host-attracting behavior) were correlated positively with densities of their hosts. Upstream dispersal of host fish for non-displaying host specialist mussels could, theoretically, transport mussel larvae (glochidia) over long distances through unsuitable habitat, but it is unlikely that this occurs very often. D. Strayer (personal communication) suggested a distance of at least 10 km, but a greater distance between occurrences may be necessary to constitute genetic separation of populations. As such, separation distance is based on a set, though arbitrary, distance between two known points of occurrence.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Contact Jay Cordeiro (jay_cordeiro@natureserve.org) for a complete list of freshwater mussel taxa sorted by flow regime.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Apr2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 11Dec2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Strayer, David. 1991. Memo to the Endangered Species Unit of August 19, 1991 regarding the extent and size of the population of the dwarf wedge mussel, Alasmidonta heterodon, in the Lower Neversink River.

  • Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

  • Van der Schalie, H. 1938a. The naiad fauna of the Huron River in southeastern Michigan. Miscellaneous Publication of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 40:7-78.

  • Vaughn, C.C. 2000. Changes in the mussel fauna of the middle Red River drainage: 1910 - present. Pages 225-232 in R.A. Tankersley, D.I. Warmolts, G.T. Watters, B.J. Armitage, P.D. Johnson, and R.S. Butler (eds.). Freshwater Mollusk Symposia Proceedings. Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, Ohio. 274 pp.

  • Vaughn, C.C. and D.E. Spooner. 2004. Status of the mussel fauna of the Poteau River and implications for commercial harvest. American Midland Naturalist, 152: 336-346.

  • Watson, E.T. 2000. Distribution and life history of the Unionidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca) in the Assiniboine River drainage in Manitoba, with special reference to Anodontoides ferussacianus. MS Thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 159 pp.

  • Watson, E.T., L.C. Graham, and W.G. Franzin. 1998. The distribution of Unionidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Assiniboine River drainage in Manitoba. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2232. Central and Arctic Region, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, MB. 32 p.

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  • Watters, G.T. 1992a. Unionids, fishes, and the species-area curve. Journal of Biogeography 19:481-490.

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  • Williams, J.D., A.E. Bogan, and J.T. Garner. 2008. Freshwater Mussels of Alabama & the Mobile Basin in Georgia, Mississippi & Tennessee. University of Alabama Press: Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 908 pp.

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  • Posey II, W.R. 1997. Location, species composition and community estimates for mussel beds in the St. Francis and Ouachita Rivers, Arkansas. M.S. Thesis, Arkansas State University. 178 pp.

  • Pryor, W.W. 2005. Distribution of the native freshwater mussels in the rivers of Allen County, Indiana. Report to the St. Joseph River Watershed Initiative, Fort Wayne, Indiana. 71 pp.

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  • Sietman, B.E. 2003. Field Guide to the Freshwater Mussels of Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources: St. Paul, Minnesota. 144 pp.

  • Sietman, B.E., S.D. Whitney, D.E. Kelner, K.D. Blodgett, and H.L. Dunn. 2001. Post-extirpation recovery of the freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) fauna in the Upper Illinois River. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 16(2): 273-281.

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