Fundulus notatus - (Rafinesque, 1820)
Blackstripe Topminnow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Fundulus notatus (Rafinesque, 1820) (TSN 165663)
French Common Names: fondule rayé
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100269
Element Code: AFCNB04110
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cyprinodontiformes Fundulidae Fundulus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Fundulus notatus
Taxonomic Comments: Exhibits a high degree of genetic variation both within and among populations (Cashner et al. 1992). Diploid chromosome number throughout most of range apparently is 40, but Black and Howell (Copeia 1978:280-288) reported a population in the upper Tombigbee River system, Alabama and Mississippi, with a modal diploid count of 44; phenotypically and ecologically, the Tombigbee population is essentially identical to other populations of F. NOTATUS. The genus FUNDULUS was removed from Atheriniformes:Cyprinodontidae and placed in Cyprinodontiformes:Fundulidae by Parenti (1981); pending confirmation based on other character suites, this change was not accepted in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991). See A86WIL05NA for a study of the evolutionary relationships of FUNDULUS topminnows based on morphological characters. See Cashner et al. (1992) for an allozyme-based phylogenetic analysis of the genus FUNDULUS.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 20Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (26Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3), Arkansas (S4), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Michigan (S2S3), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Wisconsin (S5)
Canada Ontario (S2)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: SC (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Special Concern (04May2012)
Comments on COSEWIC: This small-bodied fish is found in a single river system across approximately ten locations in southwestern Ontario. Its habitat has been degraded owing to urbanization, industrialization, intensive agricultural activity, and removal of streamside vegetation. Although the species is relatively tolerant of low oxygen levels and high sediment loads, if its habitat quality declines further it could become threatened.
Designated Special Concern in April 1985. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2001 and May 2012.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The large range encompasses the Gulf Slope from the Mobile Bay drainage, western Alabama, to San Antonio Bay drainage, Texas, and extends northward in the Mississippi Valley north to Iowa and southern Wisconsin, and includes the Lake Michigan and Lake Erie drainages from Wisconsin to Ohio and Ontario (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations) (e.g., see map in Lee et al. 1980).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 100,000. This species is usually common but never collected in large numbers (Lee et al. 1980).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many to very many (41 to >125)

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trends are not definitely known, but extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 10% over 10 years or three generations.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) The large range encompasses the Gulf Slope from the Mobile Bay drainage, western Alabama, to San Antonio Bay drainage, Texas, and extends northward in the Mississippi Valley north to Iowa and southern Wisconsin, and includes the Lake Michigan and Lake Erie drainages from Wisconsin to Ohio and Ontario (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MO, MS, OH, OK, TN, TX, WI
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Town (03160102), Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Noxubee (03160108), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Escatawpa (03170008), Mississippi Coastal (03170009)*, Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Upper Fox (04030201), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001)*, Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006), Auglaize (04100007), Blanchard (04100008), Lower Maumee (04100009)*, Sandusky (04100011)
05 Mahoning (05030103), Hocking (05030204), Licking (05040006)*, Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003)*, Upper Great Miami (05080001), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202)*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)*, Licking (05100101), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Upper Wabash (05120101), Salamonie (05120102), Mississinewa (05120103), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115), Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Patoka (05120209), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Stones (05130203), Harpeth (05130204), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Saline (05140204), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Lower French Broad (06010107), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 Lower St. Croix (07030005), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)*, Flint-Henderson (07080104), Upper Cedar (07080201), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Middle Iowa (07080208)*, Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Upper Sangamon (07130006), South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104)*, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202), Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Forked Deer (08010206), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Loosahatchie (08010209), Wolf (08010210), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202), Yocona (08030203)*, Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207)*, Lower Yazoo (08030208)*, Deer-Steele (08030209), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Coles Creek (08060204), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Lower Grand (08070300), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203), East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301), West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)
10 Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Upper Black (11010007), Spring (11010010), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), North Fork Ninnescah (11030014), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Kaw Lake (11060001), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Elk (11070208), Lower Neosho (11070209), Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202), Little (11090203), Lower Canadian (11090204), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Deep Fork (11100303), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Lake Texoma (11130210), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Blue (11140102), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Cross Bayou (11140304), Caddo Lake (11140306)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Village (12020006), Pine Island Bayou (12020007), Upper West Fork Trinity (12030101), Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Elm Fork Trinity (12030103), Denton (12030104), Upper Trinity (12030105), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Sabine Lake (12040201), East Galveston Bay (12040202), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Lower Brazos (12070104), Middle Colorado-Elm (12090101), Middle Colorado (12090106), Pecan Bayou (12090107), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), South Llano (12090203), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lower Colorado (12090302), Upper Guadalupe (12100201), Middle Guadalupe (12100202), Lower Guadalupe (12100204), Upper San Antonio (12100301), Medina (12100302), Lower San Antonio (12100303), Cibolo (12100304), Lower Frio (12110108), San Miguel (12110109), Atascosa (12110110)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in late spring and summer. Sexually mature at age I (Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Habitat Comments: This species inhabits small to large, lowland, low-gradient streams and sloughs with water of moderate to high turbidity; quiet water of creeks, rivers, lakes, swamps, drainage ditches, highwater pools of rivers, and ponds. It winters in deeper water. It is common in lowlands, rare to absent in uplands (Page and Burr 2011). Eggs are attached to aquatic vegetation, leaf litter, or detritus (Becker 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats various arthropods, snails, and algae; often feeds at surface (Becker 1983, Lee et al. 1980).
Phenology Comments: Feeding activity mainly diurnal.
Length: 7 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Killifishes (Cyprinodontids)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Alternate Separation Procedure: Each spring system that is undivided by a barrier constitutes a single distinct occurrence. Otherwise, use a separation distance of 10 km for any type of aquatic habitat.
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Cashner, R. C., J. S. Rogers, and J. M. Grady. 1992. Phylogenetic studies of the genus Fundulus. Pages 421-437 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Dextrase, A.J. 1997. COSSARO Candidate V,T,E Species Evaluation Form for Blackstripe Topminnow (Fundulus notatus). Unpublished report prepared for Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 4 pp.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • HUBBS, CLARK, EDIE MARSH-MATTHEWS, WILLIAM J. MATTHEWS, AND ALLISON A. ANDERSON. 1997. CHANGES IN FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN EAST TEXAS STREAMS FROM 1953 TO 1986. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.:67-84.

  • Huver, C. W. 1973. A bibliography of the genus Fundulus. G. K. Hall and Company, Boston. v + 138 pp.

  • Mandrak, N.E., and E. Holm. 2000. Updated Status of the Blackstripe Topminnow, Fundulus notatus, in Canada. DRAFT Report to the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 15 pp + figures + appendices.

  • McAllister, D.E. 1987. Status of the Blackstripe Topminnow, Fundulus notatus, in Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 101(2): 219-225

  • McAllister, D.E. [1985]. Status report on the blackstripe topminnow, Fundulus notatus, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 12 pp.

  • McKee, P.M. and B.J. Parker. 1982. The distribution, biology, and status of the fishes Campostoma anomalum, Clinostomus elongatus, Notropis photogenis (Cyprinidae), and Fundulus notatus (Cyprinodontidae) in Canada. Can. J. Zool. 60: 1347-1358.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Parenti, L. R. 1981. A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of cyprinodontiform fishes (Teleostei, Atherinomorpha). Bulletin of the American Museum Natural History 168:335-557.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • WINEMILLER, KIRK O. 1991. ECOMORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSIFICATION IN LOWLAND FRESHWATER FISH ASSEMBLAGES FROM FIVE BIOTIC REGIONS. ECOL. MONOGR. 61(4):345-365.

  • Wiley, E.O. 1986. A study of the evolutionary relationships of Fundulus topminnows (Teleostei: Fundulidae). American Zoologist 26:121-130.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
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