Fundulus dispar - (Agassiz, 1854)
Starhead Topminnow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Fundulus dispar (Agassiz, 1854) (TSN 165672)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105342
Element Code: AFCNB04250
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cyprinodontiformes Fundulidae Fundulus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Fundulus dispar
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly included in F. notti; recognized as a distinct species in the F. notti species complex by Wiley (1977) and Robins et al. (1991); members of the group are not entirely allopatric as was formerly believed. Fundulus blairae Wiley and Hall, 1975, another member of the complex, was regarded as a subspecies of F. dispar in the 1991 AFS checklist, based on evidence of intergradation in northeastern Louisiana. Cashner et al. (1992) noted that fixed allelic or significant genotype frequency differences have not been found between populations of F. blairae and F. dispar. Page and Burr (1991) retained blairae and dispar as distinct species.

The genus Fundulus was removed from Atheriniformes:Cyprinodontidae and placed in Cyprinodontiformes: Fundulidae by Parenti (1981); pending confirmation based on other character suites, this change was not accepted in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991). See Wiley (1986) for a study of the evolutionary relationships of Fundulus topminnows based on morphological characters. See Cashner et al. (1992) for an allozyme-based phylogenetic analysis of the genus Fundulus.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 30Jan2012
Global Status Last Changed: 18Feb2000
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (SU), Florida (SNR), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S4), Iowa (SX), Kentucky (S1), Louisiana (S3S4), Michigan (S1), Mississippi (S3), Missouri (S2), Oklahoma (SNR), Tennessee (S3), Wisconsin (S2)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range extends from the Ouachita River drainage, Louisiana, and Big Black river, Mississippi, northward in the Mississippi River and Lake Michigan basins to southern Michigan and southern Wisconsin; Gulf Slope drainages from Mobile Bay, Alabama, to the Pearl River, Mississippi (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This species is locally common (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: This species is becoming less common as wetlands are drained (Page and Burr 1991, 2011).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but distribution and abundance probably are slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from the Ouachita River drainage, Louisiana, and Big Black river, Mississippi, northward in the Mississippi River and Lake Michigan basins to southern Michigan and southern Wisconsin; Gulf Slope drainages from Mobile Bay, Alabama, to the Pearl River, Mississippi (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, IAextirpated, IL, IN, KY, LA, MI, MO, MS, OK, TN, WI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Cedar (19031)*, Clay (19041)*, Dickinson (19059)*, Muscatine (19139)*, Palo Alto (19147)*
IL Brown (17009)*, Bureau (17011), Calhoun (17013)*, Cook (17031)*, Fulton (17057), Henry (17073), Iroquois (17075), Jersey (17083)*, Kane (17089), Kankakee (17091), Lake (17097), Lee (17103), Mason (17125), Mchenry (17111), Morgan (17137)*, Peoria (17143)*, Piatt (17147), Pike (17149)*, Putnam (17155), Tazewell (17179)*, Union (17181), Whiteside (17195), Will (17197)*, Winnebago (17201)
KY Fulton (21075), Hickman (21105)*
MI Barry (26015)*, Berrien (26021)*, Branch (26023), Cass (26027), Hillsdale (26059)*
MO Bollinger (29017), Boone (29019), Butler (29023), Callaway (29027), Dunklin (29069), Mississippi (29133), New Madrid (29143)*, Pemiscot (29155)*, Scott (29201), St. Charles (29183), Stoddard (29207), Wayne (29223)
MS Alcorn (28003), Bolivar (28011), Carroll (28015), Clay (28025), Hinds (28049), Holmes (28051), Humphreys (28053), Lawrence (28077), Leflore (28083), Lowndes (28087), Marion (28091), Rankin (28121), Warren (28149)
WI Crawford (55023), Dane (55025), Grant (55043), Green (55045), Iowa (55049), Jackson (55053), Kenosha (55059), La Crosse (55063)*, Racine (55101), Richland (55103), Rock (55105), Sauk (55111), Walworth (55127)*, Waukesha (55133)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101)+, Luxapallila (03160105)+, Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106)+, Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002)*, Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Mississippi Coastal (03170009)*, Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)+, Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003)+, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+, Thornapple (04050007)+*
05 Tippecanoe (05120106), Lower Wabash (05120113), Lower White (05120202)
06 Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+*, Black (07040007)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+*, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+, Lower Rock (07090005)+, Green (07090007)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Kankakee (07120001)+, Iroquois (07120002)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+*, Upper Fox (07120006)+, Lower Fox (07120007)+, Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)+, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)+, Upper Sangamon (07130006)+, Lower Sangamon (07130008)+, Lower Illinois (07130011)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)+, Obion (08010202)+, South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Upper Hatchie (08010207)+, Lower Hatchie (08010208), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100)+, New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Little River Ditches (08020204)+, Lower White (08020303), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Tallahatchie (08030202)+, Yalobusha (08030205)+, Upper Yazoo (08030206)+, Big Sunflower (08030207), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou Macon (08050002), Lower Big Black (08060202)+, Homochitto (08060205)
10 Little Sioux (10230003)+*, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+
11 Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in late spring and early summer. In southern Illinois, peak reproductive readiness occurred mid-April to mid-July at water temperatures of 17-30 C; eggs hatched in 9-11 days at about 25 C; females evidently produced multiple clutches in a single season; first spawned at an age of one year; life span at least two years (Taylor and Burr 1997). Sexually mature at age II, few reach age III (Becker 1983, Smith 1979).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Habitats include well-vegetated swamps, marshes, floodplain sloughs, lakes, and other standing water bodies, and quiet pools and backwaters of streams (Lee et al. 1980, Becker 1983, Page and Burr 2011). Spawning occurs in dense beds of aquatic vegetation (Smith 1979).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats aquatic insects, snails, crustaceans, and algae (Lee et al. 1980).
Length: 7 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Killifishes (Cyprinodontids)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Alternate Separation Procedure: Each spring system that is undivided by a barrier constitutes a single distinct occurrence. Otherwise, use a separation distance of 10 km for any type of aquatic habitat.
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Jan2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 30Jan2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Cashner, R. C., J. S. Rogers, and J. M. Grady. 1992. Phylogenetic studies of the genus Fundulus. Pages 421-437 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Gerking, Shelby D. 1945. Distribution of Fishes of Indiana. In Investigations of Indiana Lakes and Streams. 3(1): 1-137. Indiana Department of Conservation, Division of Fish and Game, Indianapolis and Department of Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington.

  • Huver, C. W. 1973. A bibliography of the genus Fundulus. G. K. Hall and Company, Boston. v + 138 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Parenti, L. R. 1981. A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of cyprinodontiform fishes (Teleostei, Atherinomorpha). Bulletin of the American Museum Natural History 168:335-557.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lackner, R.N. Lea, and W.K. Scott. 1980. A List of Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the US and Canada. 4th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication No. 12, Bethesda, Maryland. 174 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Taylor, C. A., and B. M. Burr. 1997. Reproductive biology of the northern starhead topminnow, Fundulus dispar (Osteichthyes: Fundulidae), with a review of data for freshwater members of the genus. American Midland Naturalist 137:151-164.

  • Wiley, E. O. 1977. The phylogeny and systematics of the Fundulus nottii species group (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas No. 66. 31 pp.

  • Wiley, E.O. 1986. A study of the evolutionary relationships of Fundulus topminnows (Teleostei: Fundulidae). American Zoologist 26:121-130.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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