Fundulus kansae - Garman, 1895
Northern Plains Killifish
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Fundulus kansae Garman, 1895 (TSN 165654)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.790518
Element Code: AFCNB04600
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cyprinodontiformes Fundulidae Fundulus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B04NEL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Fundulus kansae
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 01Feb2012
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (01Feb2012)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Colorado (S5), Kansas (S3), Missouri (S2), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (S4), New Mexico (SNR), Oklahoma (SNR), South Dakota (SNA), Texas (SNR), Wyoming (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes east slope drainages of the Rocky Mountains from southeastern Wyoming (Poss and Miller 1983) south to the Canadian River of New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma (Kreiser et al. 2001); east to Missouri (Lee et al. 1980). Populations of the Fundulus zebrinus-kansae group in southern Montana, southwestern South Dakota, northern and central Wyoming, western Colorado, eastern and southern Utah, northwestern New Mexico, northern Arizona, and Big Bend region of Texas are introduced (Poss and Miller 1983). Introduced populations also occur in Nevada (Glen Clemmer, pers. comm., 1998).

Area of Occupancy:  
Area of Occupancy Comments: Area of occupancy is unknown but likely exceeds 2,000 sq km. This species is estimated to occur in less than 100 stream miles in Missouri (Janet Sternburg, pers. comm., 1998); numbers fluctuate drastically from year to year, abundant in only two creeks (Pflieger 1997). It is estimated to occur in 700+ stream miles in Nebraska (Mike Fritz, pers. comm., 1998), 500+ stream miles in Kansas (Bill Busby, pers. comm., 1998), large additional areas in Wyoming, Colorado, and other states..

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (e.g., see map in Lee et al. 1980).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but large. In Colorado, this species is common to abundant in many locations (heritage program files).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The greatest threat is habitat loss and alteration due to dewatering from groundwater pumping for agriculture and surface water diversions (Bill Busby, Janet Sternburg, and Mark Gallyoun, pers. comm., 1998). Spotty reductions in abundance in Kansas may be tied to changes in water quality that allows greater numbers of competitive species to become established (Eberle, et. al. 1997). Although no supporting evidence is available, Mark Eberle (pers. comm., 1998) believes this species may have a competitive advantage in streams with high conductivities. As a result, it does well in southwestern streams (where it is an introduced pest) with high salinities or alkalinities and maybe able to expand its range into streams polluted with chemicals that cause an increase in conductivity. Therefore, where range expansions are occurring, it maybe an indicator of declining water quality. In Wyoming found to be not particularly susceptible to predation by introduced trout (Baxter and Stone 1995). The degree of threat ranges from moderate to unthreatened across range. Considered moderately threatened in Kansas and Missouri (Bill Busby and Janet Sternburg, pers. comm., 1998). Considered unthreatened in Colorado (heritage program files) and not very threatened in Wyoming and Nebraska (Mike Fritz and Mary Neighbours, pers. comm., 1998). Unthreatened in Utah, should be eliminated as an undesirable exotic (George Oliver, pers. comm., 1998).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Specific information on long-term population trends and distribution changes is not available across the range. However, declines in distribution and abundance have been noted in Kansas and Missouri (approximately one third of native range), but in the remainder of the range the species is stable or expanding due to introductions occurring in some areas. Formerly this was one of the most abundant fish species in Kansas, but there have been substantial declines over the past 25 years, with an estimated loss of approximately 70 percent of occurrences; the species is still common in some local areas (Bill Busby, pers. comm., 1998, Eberle et al. 1997). Status bears watching in Kansas (Eberle et al. 1997). Always considered rare in Missouri (on periphery of range), but historically the species was more widespread; it has not been found in the Missouri River since 1965; populations probably are declining (Janet Sternburg, pers. comm., 1998). Fundulus kansae is considered stable to increasing in Colorado (heritage program files), increasing in Wyoming (Patton 1997); Wyoming range has expanded due to introductions (Baxter and Stone 1995). Considered stable in Nebraska; used as a bait fish and expanding range in some areas (Mike Fritz, pers. comm., 1998). Surveys were conducted in southwestern South Dakota and the Loup and Republican rivers in Nebraska during the 1990s. No changes in abundance or distribution were found in South Dakota, where the species occurs in fairly large numbers. In Nebraska, it is holding its own in the Loup River and doing fine in the southwest portion of the state (George Cunningham, pers. comm., 1998). In Texas, populations are stable (Gary Garrett, pers. comm., 1998).

The species has been introduced and is considered an undesirable exotic in several states (Utah, Arizona, Nevada, Montana), it is apparently tolerant of a wide range of ecological conditions (Pague 1996, Glen Clemmer, Paul Hendricks, George Oliver, and Sabra Schwartz, pers. comm., 1998). Population trend in Utah is not precisely known, but likely stable or increasing (George Oliver, pers. comm., 1998).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes east slope drainages of the Rocky Mountains from southeastern Wyoming (Poss and Miller 1983) south to the Canadian River of New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma (Kreiser et al. 2001); east to Missouri (Lee et al. 1980). Populations of the Fundulus zebrinus-kansae group in southern Montana, southwestern South Dakota, northern and central Wyoming, western Colorado, eastern and southern Utah, northwestern New Mexico, northern Arizona, and Big Bend region of Texas are introduced (Poss and Miller 1983). Introduced populations also occur in Nevada (Glen Clemmer, pers. comm., 1998).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, KS, MO, MTexotic, NE, NM, OK, SDexotic, TX, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MO Atchison (29005)*, Boone (29019), Callaway (29027)*, Clay (29047), Clinton (29049), Cole (29051)*, Cooper (29053)*, Franklin (29071)*, Howard (29089), Platte (29165)*, Warren (29219)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Middle Niobrara (10150004), Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007), Glendo Reservoir (10180008), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009), Upper Laramie (10180010), Lower Laramie (10180011), Horse (10180012), Pumpkin (10180013), Lower North Platte (10180014), Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003), St. Vrain (10190005), Big Thompson (10190006), Cache La Poudre (10190007), Lone Tree-Owl (10190008), Crow (10190009), Bijou (10190011), Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012), Pawnee (10190014), Upper Lodgepole (10190015), Lower Lodgepole (10190016), Lower South Platte (10190018), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), Lower Elkhorn (10220003), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Little Nemaha (10240006), Big Nemaha (10240008), Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Arikaree (10250001), North Fork Republican (10250002), South Fork Republican (10250003), Upper Republican (10250004), Harlan County Reservoir (10250009), Upper Sappa (10250010), South Fork Beaver (10250012), Little Beaver (10250013), Prairie Dog (10250015), Middle Republican (10250016), Lower Republican (10250017), Smoky Hill Headwaters (10260001), North Fork Smoky Hill (10260002), Upper Smoky Hill (10260003), Ladder (10260004), Hackberry (10260005), Middle Smoky Hill (10260006), Big (10260007), Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Upper Saline (10260009), Lower Saline (10260010), Upper North Fork Solomon (10260011), Lower North Fork Solomon (10260012), Upper South Fork Solomon (10260013), Lower South Fork Solomon (10260014), Solomon (10260015), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Lower Kansas (10270104), Lower Little Blue (10270207), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)+*
11 Upper Arkansas (11020002), Fountain (11020003), Chico (11020004), Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith (11020005), Huerfano (11020006), Apishapa (11020007), Horse (11020008), Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009), Purgatoire (11020010), Big Sandy (11020011), Rush (11020012), Two Butte (11020013), Middle Arkansas-Lake Mckinney (11030001), Whitewoman (11030002), Arkansas-Dodge City (11030003), Coon-Pickerel (11030004), Pawnee (11030005), Buckner (11030006), Upper Walnut Creek (11030007), Lower Walnut Creek (11030008), Rattlesnake (11030009), Gar-Peace (11030010), Cow (11030011), Little Arkansas (11030012), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), North Fork Ninnescah (11030014), South Fork Ninnescah (11030015), Ninnescah (11030016), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Cimarron headwaters (11040001), Upper Cimarron (11040002), Upper Cimarron-Liberal (11040006), Crooked (11040007), Upper Cimarron-Bluff (11040008), Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief (11050001), Lower Cimarron-Skeleton (11050002), Kaw Lake (11060001), Upper Salt Fork Arkansas (11060002), Medicine Lodge (11060003), Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Lower Neosho (11070209), Canadian headwaters (11080001), Cimarron (11080002), Upper Canadian (11080003), Mora (11080004), Conchas (11080005), Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir (11080006), Ute (11080007), Revuelto (11080008), Punta De Agua (11090102)*, Rita Blanca (11090103), Carrizo (11090104)*, Lower Canadian-Deer (11090201), Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202), Little (11090203), Lower Canadian (11090204), Upper Beaver (11100101), Middle Beaver (11100102), Lower Beaver (11100201), Lower Wolf (11100203), Middle North Canadian (11100301), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Polecat-Snake (11110101)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes shallow sandy runs, pools, and backwaters of headwaters, creeks, and small to medium rivers, including those with extremely alkaline or saline water..
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Kreiser, B. R., J. B. Mitton, and J. D. Woodling. 2001. Phylogeography of the plains killifish, Fundulus zebrinus. Evolution 55:339-350.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Poss, S. G., and R. R. Miller. 1983. Taxonomic status of the plains killifish, Fundulus zebrinus. Copeia 1983:55-67.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

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