Fremontodendron mexicanum - A. Davids.
Mexican Flannelbush
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Fremontodendron mexicanum A. Davids. (TSN 21581)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.148726
Element Code: PDSTE03020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Cacao Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Malvales Sterculiaceae Fremontodendron
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Fremontodendron mexicanum
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 25Jan2012
Global Status Last Changed: 19Aug2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Fremontodendron mexicanum is known with certainty only from southern San Diego County, California and south into Arroyo Seco (North of San Quintin) Baja California, Mexico. The plants have been relocated recently at only one of the twelve known sites despite searches of at least some of the historic locales. The California population is thought to contain fewer than one hundred individuals. The Bureau of Land Management specifically manages its land for this population; the Area of Critical Environmental Concern and the Research Natural Area, on which about 50% of the plant's habitat lies, were designated for the preservation of F. mexicanum. The species is likely susceptible to adverse genetic effects due to the low number of remaining individuals. Another primary threat is from altered fire regimes.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (13Oct1998)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Found in Imperial, Kern, Monterey, and San Diego Counties, California and Baja California, Mexico (Smith and Berg, 1988). According to the California Natural Diversity Database, Fremontodendron mexicanum is distributed from the border south to Arroyo Seco (North of San Quintin) in Mexico.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Twelve, only one of which (Cedar Canyon in United States) has been recently reverified (Fish and Wildlife Service 1995). Ten in the United States; two in Mexico, at least one of which may have been extirpated by a major flood (Rieser 1994 as cited in USFWS 1995). As of 2001, more occurrences of Fremontodendron mexicanum were found in California.

Population Size Comments: Estimated to be fewer than 100 plants in United States (CNDDB 1992, Beauchamp in litt. 1993 as cited in USFWS 1995).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The species is likely susceptible to adverse genetic effects because of the low number of individuals in the population (est. <100). Another primary threat is from altered fire regimes as a result of various human-caused fires. Fires that occur at longer or shorter intervals than the natural cycle or during reproductive seasons may imperil the species (Fish and Wildlife Service 1998).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Found in Imperial, Kern, Monterey, and San Diego Counties, California and Baja California, Mexico (Smith and Berg, 1988). According to the California Natural Diversity Database, Fremontodendron mexicanum is distributed from the border south to Arroyo Seco (North of San Quintin) in Mexico.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.

National Distribution Outside of U.S. & Canada: Mexico

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA San Diego (06073)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 San Diego (18070304)+, Cottonwood-Tijuana (18070305)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A small evergreen tree or shrub, < 7 m tall. The palmately lobed leaves are thick and leathery. Flowers (March-July or August) lack petals, but have showy, orange sepals.
Technical Description: "Tall, stiff and circa 2-6 m across; branches with dense stellate tomentum at first yellowish, later dark; leaves roundish, 2.5-7 cm across, cordate at base, with 5-7 main veins from base, shallowly lobed; petioles mostly 2-4 cm long; calyx somewhat shallowly campanulate, 6-9 cm across, orange becoming reddish at base on outside, somewhat puberulent within basal pits; capsules conical, mostly 3-4 cm long" (Munz, 1974).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Fremontodendron mexicanum can be characterized by leaves palmately 5-7 veined from base; glands at base of sepals glabrous; flowers 6-9 cm across, borne on main twigs; seeds shining, without caruncle (Munz, 1974).
Duration: PERENNIAL, Long-lived
Reproduction Comments: When fully ripened, the capsule splits open at the tip and the seed are cast from the plant when shaken by wind, hail, or animal disturbances.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Slopes covered with southern mixed chaparral, closed cone coniferous forest dominated by Tecate cypress (Cupressus forbesii), and canyons. 300-1000 m elevation.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 24Jun1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Maybury, K., rev. D. Gries, rev. L. McDonald
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 12Jun1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Munz, P.A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 1086 pp.

  • Pearson, D.C. 1989. Endangered species alert program manual: Species accounts and procedures. Southern California Edison Environmental Affairs Division.

  • Smith, J.P., and K. Berg. 1988. California native plant society's inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 4th edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 168 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS. 1995. Proposed rule for 16 plant taxa from the northern Channel Islands, California. Federal Register 60(142): 37993-38010.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: endangered or threatened status for three plants from the chaparral and scrub of southwestern California. Federal Register 63(197):54956-54971.

  • Wiggins, I.L. 1980. Flora of Baja California. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 1025 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.