Fraxinus quadrangulata - Michx.
Blue Ash
Other Common Names: blue ash
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. (TSN 32947)
French Common Names: frêne anguleux, frêne bleu
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.134797
Element Code: PDOLE040F0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Olive Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Oleaceae Fraxinus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Fraxinus quadrangulata
Taxonomic Comments: In a recent phylogenetic analysis Wallander (2008) determined that Fraxinus quadrangulata and Fraxinus anomala are united with Fraxinus dipetala in the section Dipetalae.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Feb1984
Global Status Last Changed: 28Feb1984
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2? (27Jul2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Georgia (S2), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S1), Kansas (S2), Kentucky (S5), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S1), Missouri (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S2S3), Pennsylvania (S1), Tennessee (SNR), Virginia (S3), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S1)
Canada Ontario (S2?)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: SC (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Threatened (28Nov2014)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: This tree has a restricted distribution in the Carolinian forests of southwestern Ontario. Small total population size in a fragmented landscape, combined with increasing potential impact from browsing by White-tailed Deer and infestation by the invasive Emerald Ash Borer, place the species at risk of further declines at most sites. In addition, mature trees on Middle Island are threatened by impacts of nesting Double-crested Cormorants. These factors resulted in a change in status from Special Concern to Threatened.

Status history: Designated Threatened in April 1983. Status re-examined and designated Special Concern in November 2000. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in November 2014.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MN, MO, MS, OH, OK, PA, TN, VA, WI, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Catoosa (13047), Dade (13083), Floyd (13115), Walker (13295)
IA Des Moines (19057), Jackson (19097), Lee (19111)
MS Lee (28081), Lowndes (28087)*, Noxubee (28103), Oktibbeha (28105), Tishomingo (28141)
OK Adair (40001)*, Cherokee (40021)*, Le Flore (40079), Muskogee (40101), Rogers (40131), Tulsa (40143)
PA Fayette (42051)
WI Waukesha (55133)
WV Cabell (54011), Mason (54053), Mineral (54057)*, Putnam (54079)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 North Branch Potomac (02070002)+*
03 Etowah (03150104)+, Upper Coosa (03150105)+, Town (03160102)+, Tibbee (03160104)+, Luxapallila (03160105)+*, Noxubee (03160108)+
05 Cheat (05020004)+, Lower Kanawha (05050008)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+
06 Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+
07 Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Flint-Henderson (07080104)+, Skunk (07080107)+, Lower Des Moines (07100009)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+
11 Bird (11070107)+, Lower Neosho (11070209)+*, Polecat-Snake (11110101)+, Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102)+, Illinois (11110103)+*, Mountain Fork (11140108)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Ambrose, J.D. and S.W. Aboud. 1983. Conservation Recommendations for the species FRAXINUS QUADRANGULATA Michx. in Canada. Unpublished report, Plants Subcommittee, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 3 pp.

  • Ambrose, J.D. and S.W. Aboud. 1983. Status report on the Blue Ash, FRAXINUS QUADRANGULATA. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 21 pp.

  • Anulewicz, A.C., D.G. McCullough, D.L. Cappaert, and T.M. Poland. 2008. Host range of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America: results of multiple-choice field experiments. Environmental Entomology 37(1): 230-241.

  • Argus, G.W. and D.J. White. 1977. The Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario. Syllogeus 14, National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Ontario. 63 pp.

  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Barnes, B.V. and W.H. Wagner. 1981. Michigan Trees. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. 383 pp.

  • Brodribb, K.E., and M.J. Oldham. 2000. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E Species Evaluation Form for Blue Ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata). Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario (October 2000). 7 pp. + 5 appendices.

  • Bryant, W.S., Wharton, M.E., Martin, W.H., Varner, J.B. 1980. The Blue Ash-Oak Savanna - Woodland, a Remnant of Presettlement Vegetation in the Inner Bluegrass of Kentucky. The Journal of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Club 45(3):149-164.

  • Chapman, L.J. and D.F. Putnam. 1984. The Physiography of Southern Ontario (Third Edition). Special Volume 2, Ontario Geological Survey, Toronto. 270 pp. (Accompanied by map P2715, scale 1:600,000- Original maps at 1:250,000 are in 2nd edition, 1973, University of Toronto Press).

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Edwards, J. 1980. A preliminary life science inventory of Peche Island Provincial Park. OMNR, Southwestern Region, Chatham District. OFER 8010. ii + 15 pp.

  • Fox, W.S. 1987. Trees we live with (54). The Cardinal (Newsletter of the McIlwraith Field Naturalists) 127:11-13.

  • Fox, W.S. and J.H. Soper. 1953. The Distribution of some trees and shrubs of the Carolinian Zone of Southern Ontario. Part 2. Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute 30(Part 1): 3-32.

  • Hay, S.G. 1971. Internation Biological Programme, Checksheet for Region 5, Area 382: Skunk's Misery.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Keddy, Cathy. 1980. Status and Resource Management Analysis for Five Rare Species in Point Pelee National Park. Prepared for Parks Canada.

  • Kershaw, L., J. Morton, and J. Venn. 1976. A list of Rare or Endangered Species in the Canadian Flora - Vascular Plants. University of Waterloo. 17 pp.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Morris, M.W., C.T. Bryson, and R.C. Warren. 1993. Rare vascular plants and associate plant communities from the Sand Creek Chalk Bluffs, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi. Castanea 58(4):250-259.

  • Nelson, Gil, Christopher J. Earle and Richard Spellenberg.  2014.  Trees of Eastern North America.  Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.  720 pp.

  • Oldham, M.J. 1996. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E Species Evaluation Form - Blue or Four-angled Ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata). Unpublished report, Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 4 pp. [1 June 1996]

  • Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.

  • Thompson, R.J. 1993. Status report FRAXINUS QUADRANGULATA. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Simcoe, Ontario. 25 pp.

  • Wallander, E. 2008. Systematics of Fraxinus (Oleaceae) and evolutionary dioecy. Plant Systematics and Evolution 273:25-49.

  • Weakley, Alan S.  2015.  Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States.  Unpublished mss. available as .pdf from the Herbarium, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.  1320 pp.

  • White, D.J. and M.J. Oldham. 2000. COSEWIC Status Report Update on Blue Ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata). COSEWIC. 1-7 pp.

  • White, D.J. and M.J. Oldham. 2000. Update COSEWIC status report on the blue ash Fraxinus quadrangulata in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the blue ash Fraxinus quadrangulata in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 10 pp.

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