Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Marsh.
Green Ash
Other Common Names: green ash
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. (TSN 32929)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.144657
Element Code: PDOLE040D0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Olive Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Oleaceae Fraxinus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Taxonomic Comments: As treated here (following Kartesz 1994 and 1999 and many other recent authors), includes both the "red ash" (Fraxinus pennsylvanica, in a narrower sense, of many older works) and the "green ash" (Fraxinus lanceolata of older works). LEM 14Jun00.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 13May2016
Global Status Last Changed: 16May1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (18Apr2014)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Colorado (SNR), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S5), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S5), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S5), Louisiana (SNR), Maine (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S5), Nebraska (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S4), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (SNR), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (SU), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Utah (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S3)
Canada Alberta (S1), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S4), Nova Scotia (S1), Ontario (S4), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Eastern North America from Florida north to Nova Scotia and Quebec; extending from the east, west to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Texas (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, has caused widespread morality in the ashes. The beetles feed on the leaves and lay their eggs in crevices of the bark. Larvae feed in the vascular structures during the summer, creating serpentine shaped galleries. They typically prepupae overwinter in the trees with pupation lasting from April-May, when adults emerge. Emerald Ash borers cause significant damage to the foliage of the tree and the vascular tissues. The tree will typically die within two years of the infestation (Poland and McCullough 2006).

Several diseases afflict Fraxinus pennsylvanicus: 1.) Mycosphaerella fraxinicola, a leaf spot causing premature defoliation in young trees, 2.) Anthracnose (Gleosproium aridum) that also causes premature defoliation, especially in wet years, 3.) a petiole and twig distorting rust, Puccinia peridermiopora, 4.) Fomes fraxinophilus, the white-mottled heartwood rot, and 5.) root rot caused by Phymatotrichum omnivorum.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Eastern North America from Florida north to Nova Scotia and Quebec; extending from the east, west to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Texas (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, MB, NB, NS, ON, PEexotic, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Fraxinus pennsylvanica is a tree that grows to 25 m with flaky bark and pubecent to glabrous twigs and leaves. Leaf scars are straight to slightly concave on their upper margin. Leaflets are 5-9, ovate to oblong or elliptic, acute or acuminate, usually decurrent onto the short petiolule, and with serrate to subentire margins. The fruit is a linear to spathulate samara, 4-7.5 cm in length, with wings extending to the middle of the subterete body (Gleason and Cronquist 1991, Rhoads and Block 2000).
Diagnostic Characteristics: The samara of Fraxinus pennsylvanica is differentiated into a flat wing and a subterete or terete body, while the samaras of F. caroliniana, F. nigra, and F. quadrangulata are flat. The samara of F. pennsylvanica has a wing extending halfway or more down it's body versus a wing extending 1/3 to 1/2 the length of the subterete body on F. americana and F. profunda. Petiolules of the lower and middle leaflets on F. pennsylvanica usually have a wing extending from the blade nearly to the rachis, compared to the nearly wingless petiolules of F. americana and F. profunda (Gleason and Cronquist 1991, Rhoads and Block 2000).
Duration: PERENNIAL, Long-lived, DECIDUOUS
Reproduction Comments: lowering in the spring before the leaves emerge (Rhoads and Block 2000). Flowers may appear as early as March or April in Florida and from late April to early May in the northern part of its range. Fruits appear within a month after pollination and begin growth. Even if samaras reach their full size, the embryos are not mature until late September or early October (Burns and Honkala 1990).
Known Pests: Lepidosaphes ulmi, mycoplasma-like organisms (causing ash yellows), Prionoxystus robiniae, Tomostethus multicinctus, Tethida barda, and Agrilus planipennis.
Ecology Comments: The seed crop of this species provides food for a wide variety of wildlife (Burns and Honkala 1990).
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Habitat Comments: Frequently found on moist, fertile soils of floodplains, riparian areas, and swamps including alluvial woods, lake margins, ravines, stream banks, and moist fields. Typically found in seasonally wet habitats, but can tolerate drier, upland sites (Burns and Honkala 1990, Rhoads and Block 2000).
Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: Cultivated ornamental, Revegetation
Economic Comments: The wood of Fraxinus pennsylvanicus is strong, hard, and has high shock
resistance, paired with excellent bending qualities. It is well suited for making tool handles and baseball bats (Burns and Honkala 1990)..

This species is a popular ornamental, frequently used as a street tree (Burns and Honkala 1990).

It is also used to revegetate spoil banks associated with strip mine operations (Burns and Honkala 1990).

Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Burns, R. M., and B. H. Honkala, eds. 1990. Silvics of North America, vol. 2: Hardwoods. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 654, Washington, DC. 877pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Mceuen, A. B., and L. M. Curran. 2004. Seed Dispersal And Recruitment Limitation Across Spatial Scales In Temperate Forest Fragments. Ecology 85(2):507-518.

  • Poland, T. M., and D. G. McCullough. 2006. Emerald Ash Borer: Invasion of the urban forest and and the threat to North America's ash resource. Journal of Forestry 104(3):118-124.

  • Rhoads, A.F. and T.A. Block. 2000. The Plants of Pennsylvania: An Illustrated Manual. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1061 pp.

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