Fothergilla gardenii - L.
Dwarf Witch-alder
Other Common Names: dwarf witchalder
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Fothergilla gardenii L. (TSN 19029)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.146138
Element Code: PDHAM01010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Hamamelidales Hamamelidaceae Fothergilla
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Fothergilla gardenii
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Feb2013
Global Status Last Changed: 23Jun2000
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Low number of populations, lack of formal protection, vulnerability of habitat to degradation.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Florida (S1), Georgia (S2), Mississippi (SNR), North Carolina (S3S4), South Carolina (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, from southeastern North Carolina and eastern South Carolina to southern Alabama and the western Florida Panhandle. It is most rare in Georgia, Florida and Alabama where it has a highly disjunct range (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of November 2012, Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size Comments: This is a clonal shrub, sprouting from subterranean runners (Chafin 2000, Godfrey & Wooten 1981). The number of individuals (genets) in a population is hard to dermine in the field. An estimated number of individuals is 1000 - 2500.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some to many (13-125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Good viabilty depends on the ongoing management of the site, for instance continued application of presribed fire and maintaining the natural hydrology of the site (i.e. by not implementing bedding or minor drainage for pine reforestation).

Overall Threat Impact: Medium - low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Lack of prescribed fire is a threat to populations. Drainage or changes to the natural hydrology of the site are threats (i.e. bedding or minor drainage for pine reforestation ).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Lack of prescribed fire and conversion of wetlands for intensive silviculture (e.g. minor drainage, ditches, etc.) are the greatest threats (Chafin 2000), and portend further declines of this unusual shrub.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: This shrub is a component of wetland ecotones and part of the longleaf pine ecosystem, which has declined substatially over the long-term.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, from southeastern North Carolina and eastern South Carolina to southern Alabama and the western Florida Panhandle. It is most rare in Georgia, Florida and Alabama where it has a highly disjunct range (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of November 2012, Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Baldwin (01003)
FL Okaloosa (12091), Santa Rosa (12113), Walton (12131)
GA Brantley (13025)*, Emanuel (13107), Long (13183), Macon (13193)*, Tattnall (13267), Taylor (13269), Wayne (13305)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Canoochee (03060203)+, Altamaha (03070106)+, Ohoopee (03070107)+, Satilla (03070201)+*, Upper Flint (03130005)+, Yellow (03140103)+, Blackwater (03140104)+, Perdido (03140106)+, Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: Much branched, colonial shrub, usually less than 3 feet tall, twigs with stellate pubescence. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, 1-2.5 inches long and 0.5-1 inch wide, with stellate pubescence; conspicuous parallel lateral veins; and rounded teeth on the leaf margins above the middle. Apetalous flowers with clusters of white stamens occur in dense, bottlebrush spikes at the tips of bare twigs, before leaves emerge.
General Description: "Much branched, colonial shrub usually less than 3 feet tall, with hairy twigs. Leaves deciduous, alternate, 1 - 2.5 inches long and 0.5 - 1 inch wide, with conspicuous parallel lateral veins and clusters of starshaped hairs on the under surface; leaf margins wavy with rounded teeth on the margins above the middle. Leaves turn yellow, orange, or red in the fall. Flowers fragrant, in dense bottlebrush spikes at the tips of bare twigs; male flowers consist of showy white stamens; female flowers are inconspicuous" (Chafin 2000).
Diagnostic Characteristics: At the base of the leaf, near the petiole, the base of the lateral veins is marginal in Fothergilla, and included in leaf tissue in Hamamelis. The leaves are stellate-pubescent above, up to 6 cm long and 5 cm wide (Weakley 2012).
Habitat Comments: Wet edges of baygalls, shrub swamps, pocosins, Carolina bays, Atlantic white cedar forests, pitcher plant bogs, and wet savannas and flatwoods (Chafin 2000, Chafin et al. 2007).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: Allow prescribed fire to burn into wetlands; avoid placing firebreaks or roads in wetland ecotones (Chafin et al. 2007). Avoid changes in hydrology and upland land use that affect seepage flow into bogs and baygalls (Chafin 2000).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Feb2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Chafin, L.G. (1999), rev. C. Nordman (2013)
Management Information Edition Date: 01Feb2013
Management Information Edition Author: Nordman, C.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Feb2013
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Nordman, C.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Chafin, L. G. 2000. Field guide to the rare plants of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. [http://www.fnai.org/FieldGuide/]

  • Chafin, L.G. 2007. Field guide to the rare plants of Georgia. State Botanical Garden of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, ed. 1997. Flora of North America, vol. 3. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. 590 p.

  • Godfrey, R.K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 734 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Nelson, G. 1996. The Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida: A Reference and Field Guide. Pineapple Press Inc, Sarasota.

  • Nelson, G. 1996. The Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida: A Reference and Field Guide. Pineapple Press Inc, Sarasota.

  • Patrick, T.S., J.R. Allison, and G.A. Krakow. 1995. Protected plants of Georgia: an information manual on plants designated by the State of Georgia as endangered, threatened, rare, or unusual. Georgia Dept. Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Division, Georgia Natural Heritage Program, Social Circle, Georgia. 218 pp + appendices.

  • Tobe, J. D., K. C. Burks, R. W. Cantrell, M. A. Garland, M. E. Sweeley, D. W. Hall, P. Wallace, G. Anglin, G. Nelson, J. R. Cooper, D. Bickner, K. Gilbert, N. Aymond, K. Greenwod, and N. Raymond. 1998. Florida Wetland Plants: An Identification Manual. Fla. Dept. of Environ. Protection, Tallahassee, Fla. 598 p.

  • WUNDERLIN, R.P., B.F. HANSEN, E.L. BRIDGES. 1996. ATLAS OF FLORIDA VASCULAR PLANTS: COMPACT DISK (CD-ROM) FOR USE ON WINDOWS 95, WINDOWS 3.1, AND MACINTOSH. INSTITUTE FOR SYSTEMATIC BOTANY, DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA, TAMPA, FLORIDA 33612-5150. 813-974-2359.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.