Fluminicola fuscus - (Haldeman, 1847)
Ashy Pebblesnail
Synonym(s): Fluminicola columbiana Hemphill in Pilsbry, 1899 ;Fluminicola columbianus Hemphill in Pilsbry, 1899 ;Fluminicola hindsi (Baird, 1863) ;Lithoglyphus hindsii (Baird, 1863)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Fluminicola fuscus (Haldeman, 1847) (TSN 70781) ;Fluminicola hindsi (Baird, 1863) (TSN 70782)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.943075
Element Code: IMGASG3500
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Snails
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Hydrobiidae Fluminicola
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Liu, H.P., Walsh, J. and Hershler, R. 2013. Taxonomic clarification and phylogeography of Fluminicola coloradensis Morrison, a widely ranging western North American pebblesnail. Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist 6(1):87-110.
Concept Reference Code: A13LIU01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Fluminicola fuscus
Taxonomic Comments: The genus Fluminicola is in need of revision because genetic analyses show that the genus is paraphyletic (Hershler and Liu 2012).

The taxonomic treatment of Fluminicola fuscus has undergone several changes since mid 1990?s. Hershler and Frest (1996) determined that Fluminicola hindsi and columbianus (misspelled columbiana in Turgeon et al. 1998) are junior synonyms of F. fuscus. Liu et al. (2013) conducted mtDNA analyses on Fluminicola coloradoensis, which resulted in the unassigned Snake River basin populations being assigned to F. coloradoensis, as well as the re-assignment of the lower Salmon River (Idaho) populations of Fluminicola fuscus to F. coloradoensis.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Feb2015
Global Status Last Changed: 24Mar2005
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This species has few extant occurrences and continues to be threatened by continued habitat degradation and loss.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2 (24Mar2005)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NH (07May2013)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Idaho (SNR), Montana (SH), Oregon (S1), Washington (S2), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada British Columbia (SH)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Medium) (26Jan2015)
IUCN Red List Category: DD - Data deficient

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species occurs in the Pacific Northwest of North America. The current range includes the lower and middle Snake River basin in Idaho and the Grande Ronde River in Washington and Oregon. It is also found in the Okanogan and Methow rivers and the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, all in Washington (Jordan et al. 2013, Liu et al. 2013).

Historically, this species had a widespread distribution from the Lower Snake and Columbia River drainages in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, British Columbia and possibly Montana (Frest and Johannes, 1995; Hershler and Frest, 1996). It may be extirpated from the lower Columbia River in Washington and Oregon. It has been extirpated from most of the middle and upper Columbia River in Washington and Oregon, the Spokane River in Washington, the Wigwam and Kootenai Rivers in British Columbia, and Payette River in Idaho (Frest and Johannes 1995).

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by few occurrences (subpopulations). It is still extant in several rivers in Washington, Oregon and Idaho (Hershler and Frest 1996, Jordan et al. 2013, Liu et al. 2013).

Population Size Comments: The total population size is unknown. Neitzel and Frest (1992) reported sizable populations in the Okanogan and Methow Rivers in  and smaller populations in the Hanford Reach (all in Washington) and lower Salmon River (Idaho). Although there are reports of it being abundant at 2 sites by Stockton et al (2012) and Lysne and Clark (2009), these populations were re-assigned to F. coloradoensis by Liu et al. (2013).

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: This species is threatened by impaired water quality, habitat degradation and loss, as well as by increased fragmentation of the remaining populations (Jordan et al. 2013). Many of the remaining sites for this species have been fragmented by stream modifications, including dams, impoundments, water diversions, sedimentation, orchard runoff, nutrient enhancements, and mining and pulp mill effluents (Frest and Johannes 1995, Jordan et al. 2013).

These factors continue to threaten remaining habitat for this species. A survey of the interior Columbia River basin found that most streams in the region are fully or over-appropriated for water diversion, with irrigation as the primary usage. In addition, changes in riparian vegetation were noted basin-wide, including a significant decline in riparian-associated species due to forest conversion, streamside disturbance, roads, and dams (USFS 1996). Decreased riparian vegetation destabilizes stream banks and increases sedimentation and siltation, filling in the cobble substrate inhabited by F. fuscus (Jordan et al. 2013).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years is unknown, but may be declining.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: This species is known to be extirpated from much of its historic range. Targeted surveys for this species at over 500 sites in more than 30 streams in the Columbia River Basin in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho) found it in only five streams (Neitzel and Frest 1992). The only Canada records are for British Columbia from 1863.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) This species occurs in the Pacific Northwest of North America. The current range includes the lower and middle Snake River basin in Idaho and the Grande Ronde River in Washington and Oregon. It is also found in the Okanogan and Methow rivers and the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, all in Washington (Jordan et al. 2013, Liu et al. 2013).

Historically, this species had a widespread distribution from the Lower Snake and Columbia River drainages in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, British Columbia and possibly Montana (Frest and Johannes, 1995; Hershler and Frest, 1996). It may be extirpated from the lower Columbia River in Washington and Oregon. It has been extirpated from most of the middle and upper Columbia River in Washington and Oregon, the Spokane River in Washington, the Wigwam and Kootenai Rivers in British Columbia, and Payette River in Idaho (Frest and Johannes 1995).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ID, MT, OR, WA, WY
Canada BC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Boise (16015), Custer (16037)*, Idaho (16049), Twin Falls (16083)
OR Multnomah (41051), Sherman (41055), Wallowa (41063), Wasco (41065)
WA Asotin (53003)+, Chelan (53007)+, Okanogan (53047)+, Spokane (53063)+
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Upper Spokane (17010305), Lower Spokane (17010307), Little Spokane (17010308), Okanogan (17020006), Methow (17020008), Wenatchee (17020011), Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Boise-Mores (17050112)+, Payette (17050122)+, Hells Canyon (17060101)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Lower Grande Ronde (17060106), Upper Salmon (17060201)+*, Middle Salmon-Chamberlain (17060207)+, Lower Salmon (17060209)+, Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105)+, Lower Deschutes (17070306)+, Lower Willamette (17090012)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This species is restricted to small to large rivers, in swift current on stable gravel to boulder substrate in cold, unpolluted, highly oxygenated water.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Feb2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J. (2009); Jurist, K.; T. Frest (2000); Ormes, M (2015)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08Feb1999

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Beetle, D. E. 1989. Checklist of recent Mollusca of Wyoming, U.S.A. The Great Basin Naturalist 49(4):637-645.

  • Frest, T.J. and E.J. Johannes. 1995c. Interior Columbia Basin mollusk species of special concern. Final Report (contract #43-0E00-4-9112) prepared for Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. Deixis Consultants, Seattle, Washington. 274 pp. + tabs., figs.

  • Hershler R., and H.-P. Liu. 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the western North American pebblesnails, genus Fluminicola (Rissooidea: Lithoglyphidae), with description of a new species. Journal of Molluscan Studies 78(4):321-329.

  • Hershler, R. and T. J. Frest. 1996. A review of the North American freshwater snail genus Fluminicola (Hydrobiidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 583: 1-41.

  • Jordan, S.F., S. Jepsen and R. Huff. 2013. Species fact sheet: Fluminicola fuscus (Columbia pebblesnail; Ashy pebblesnail; Columbia River spire snail). Interagency Special Status/Sensitive Species Program (ISSSSP) Conservation Planning Documents, U.S. Forest Service (Pacific Northwest Regional Office) and Bureau of Land Management (Oregon/Washington State Office). Online. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/sfpnw/issssp/planning-documents/species-guides.shtml (Accessed 2015).

  • Liu, H.P., Walsh, J. and Hershler, R. 2013. Taxonomic clarification and phylogeography of Fluminicola coloradensis Morrison, a widely ranging western North American pebblesnail. Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist 6(1):87-110.

  • Lysne, S.J. and R. Pierce. 2009. Mollusk survey of Crystal Creek-Spring Creek Ranches, Blaine County, Idaho, USA. Ellipsaria 11(1):20.

  • Lysne, S.J. and W.H. Clark. 2009. Mollusc survey of the lower Bruneau River, Owyhee County, Idaho, U.S.A. American Malacological Bulletin 27:167-172.

  • Neitzel, D., and T. Frest. 1992. Survey of Columbia River Basin Streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli. PNL-8229, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington.  

  • Stockton, K.A., Moffitt, C.M., Blew, D.L. and Farmer, C.N. 2012. Acute toxicity of Sodium Fluorescein to Ashy Pebblesnails Fluminicola fuscus. Northwest Science 86(3):190-197.

  • Turgeon, D.D., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, W.K. Emerson, W.G. Lyons, W.L. Pratt, C.F.E. Roper, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, and J.D. Williams. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16: viii + 277 pp., 12 pls.

  • Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

  • U.S. Forest Service (USFS). 1996. Status of the interior Columbia basin: summary of scientific findings. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-385. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station; U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 144 pp.

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