Feniseca tarquinius - (Fabricius, 1793)
Harvester
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Feniseca tarquinius (Fabricius, 1793) (TSN 777787)
French Common Names: moissonneur
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.116429
Element Code: IILEPB9010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Lycaenidae Feniseca
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B02OPL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Feniseca tarquinius
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 13Sep2015
Global Status Last Changed: 13Sep2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread, thousands of localized colonies but many of these are non-persistent, which may be normal. It is likely this species has declined in some parts of its range, but careful evaluation is needed. Impacts caused by the large-scale replacement of native lady beetles with exotic species in the late 20th century need investigation. Both the food supply and young larvae are potential prey for these exotics. The Harvester is quite rare in some places, but not in the far northeast US, parts of the Appalachians, and parts of Canada. It may be only a transient species in some southern portions of the range. For example in southern New Jersey from 1988-2011, it was common one year in the 1990s, and unreported most places in the other 23 years, but at least one was photographed in 2011. This has not been found recently in parts of northern Delaware where beech trees covered with wooly aphids abound. It was not rare there and in the next county north a few decades ago. The harvester is generally scarce in much of its range as noted by Brock and Kaufman (2003). For now it seems unlikely this species is in trouble globally but it is uncertain how widely this species can be called secure or whether it actually might be in a real decline.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (01Sep1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (24Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SU), Arkansas (S3), Connecticut (S4), Delaware (SU), District of Columbia (SNR), Florida (S3), Georgia (S4?), Illinois (S4?), Indiana (S4?), Iowa (S2), Kansas (S3), Kentucky (S4), Louisiana (SU), Maine (S4), Maryland (S4), Massachusetts (S3S4), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (S4), Mississippi (S4?), Missouri (S4), Nebraska (S2), New Hampshire (S4), New Jersey (S4), New York (S4), North Carolina (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S4?), Oklahoma (S3), Pennsylvania (S3S4), Rhode Island (SU), South Carolina (S4?), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (S4), Texas (SNR), Vermont (S4), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Manitoba (S3), New Brunswick (S4S5), Nova Scotia (S4), Ontario (S4), Prince Edward Island (S1S2), Quebec (S4S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Nova Scotia and Maritime Provinces south to Florida and west to Ontario and Texas.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Nova Scotia and Maritime Provinces south to Florida and west to Ontario and Texas.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada MB, NB, NS, ON, PE, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Litchfield (09005)
FL Columbia (12023), Gadsden (12039), Okaloosa (12091)
IA Jones (19105), Winneshiek (19191)*
NE Lancaster (31109), Nemaha (31127), Richardson (31147), Sarpy (31153), Seward (31159)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Housatonic (01100005)+
03 Santa Fe (03110206)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, Yellow (03140103)+
07 Upper Iowa (07060002)+*, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+
10 Lower Platte (10200202)+, Salt (10200203)+, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Middle Big Blue (10270202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Butterfly, Liphyridae.
Ecology Comments: In some part of its range at least in recent decades very sporadic and/or transient. For example in and near Cumberland-Cumberland Counties NJ absent from sometime before 1989 through 1994, frequent and widespread summer of 1995; absent 1996-2000. Very likely is declining in some regions. Speculations that decline is caused by exotic Coccinelids is very reasonable but not proven.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Deciduous or mixed forest or woods very often near alders along streams or in hillside beech stands; alder swamps, occasionally shaded suburban settings. Often forms transient colonies. Like most forest butterflies often seen on dirt roads.
Adult Food Habits: Coprophagous, Scavenger
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Larvae feed exclusively on certain aphids, see Scott (1986) for a list. Adults imbibe from moist earth, carrion, dung, and aphid honeydew.
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: The hibernation stage is definitely pupae based on larvae Schweitzer collected in Maine in October and reared to adult. Scotts's suggestion that older larvae hibernate is further unlikely because they would be unlikely to relocate shifting food sources in the spring.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An occurrence is a location where this species occurs, or has recently occurred, where there is evidence for persistence or regular recurrence. Minimally a location where an adult, larva or pupae has been photographed or collected in suitable habitats. The is a very unstable species in much of its range and may be getting more so. It is important to track locations that support only substantial temporary populations if such places are repeatedly colonized. In some cases colonies die out because the host aphids crash to low number.
Mapping Guidance: Often it will apparent what hostplants the aphids are using and these or their habitat can be used to help define boundaries. Beech trees and alder bushes are most often used.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Multiple colonies in a large wetland complex are one occurrence unless there are clearly permanent gaps of more than the suitable habitat distance.
Separation Justification: An outstandingly good colonizer, capable of suddenly appearing abundantly in a substantial region where it is not normally seen, For example in Cape May-Cumberland Counties, New Jersey there seem to have been no observations from before 1988 though 1994 or from 1996 to 2002 despite many butterfly watchers and a couple of active Lepidopterists. The species was widespread and almost common in 1995 in these counties and Schweitzer saw two together in his yard in Cumberland County in August 2003 but no others ever except in 1995. Also he saw a territorial male in July 2003 in Pennsylvania in the yard where he lived from 1965-1972 without ever seeing any. These and many similar observations imply some level of long distance movement. When or where it is common the species forms local colonies but individuals are frequent almost anywhere in shaded habitats. Small shaded patches in fairly open urban or agricultural areas can get colonized.
Since suitable habitat cannot be defined without censusing for host aphids the suitable habitat distance will in practice be useful mostly in places like large northern alder swamps and mountain beech forests where good habitat for the host aphids is extensive.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Without information to suggest otherwise, it seems prudent not to infer occurrence beyond the boundaries of the immediate habitat which is often less than a hectare to dozens of hectares. If the butterflies or larvae are actually seen widely in a larger area, the inferred habitat then would be the enitre alder swamp, beech stand or other supporting community up to a mximum of 1 km.
Date: 25Sep2001
Author: Schweitzer, Dale F.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Jul2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Schweitzer, D.F.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10May2001
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): SCHWEITZER, D.F.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, T. J. 1997. The butterflies of West Virginia and their caterpillars. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 388 pages, color photographs.

  • Belth, Jeffrey E. 2013. Butterflies of Indiana A Field Guide. Indiana University Press.Bloomington, IN.

  • COVELL, C.V., JR. 1999. THE BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA) OF KENTUCKY: AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST. KENTUCKY STATE NATURE PRESERVES COMMISSION SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES 6:1-220.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba butterfly species list and subnational ranks proposed by Environment Canada contractor.

  • Huber, R. L. 1981. An updated checklist of Minnesota butterflies. Minnesota Entomological Association Newsletter 14(3):15-25.

  • Klassen,P.,Westwood, A.R., Preston. W.B. and W.B. McKillop. 1989. The butterflies of Manitoba. Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature. Winnipeg. 290 pp.

  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.

  • Pohl, G.R.  J-F. Landry, B.C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.van Nieukerken, J.R. deWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated checklist of the moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. 580 pp.

  • Shuey, John. 1995. Indiana S-Ranks for Butterflies. Memorandum to Cloyce Hedge. 10 pp.

  • Shull, Ernest M. 1987. The Butterflies of Indiana. Publ. by Indiana Acad. Science, distributed by Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington/Indianapolis, 262 pp.

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