Falco peregrinus tundrius - C.M. White, 1968
Arctic Peregrine Falcon
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Falco peregrinus tundrius C. M. White, 1968 (TSN 175608)
French Common Names: faucon pèlerin tundrius
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104097
Element Code: ABNKD06074
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Raptors
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Falconiformes Falconidae Falco
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1957. The A.O.U. Check-list of North American Birds, 5th ed. Port City Press, Inc., Baltimore, MD. 691 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B57AOU01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Falco peregrinus tundrius
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4T3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 03Oct2008
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: T3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Recovering from population decline due to pesticide poisoning. Has a widespread distribution and a large number of breeding sites, most in remote, undisturbed wilderness.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3B (03Oct2008)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3B (11Feb2012)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (S3B), Colorado (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Maryland (S3N), Oregon (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), Texas (S3N), Washington (S3N), Wisconsin (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SUM), Manitoba (SNRB), Northwest Territories (SUB), Nunavut (SNRB), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (S3), Yukon Territory (S2B)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):NAR
Comments on COSEWIC: COSEWIC has lumped tundrius and anatum as one subspecies (designated NAR).
The Peregrine Falcon in Canada was originally evaluated by COSEWIC as three separate subspecies: anatum subspecies (Endangered in April 1978, Threatened in April 1999 and in May 2000), tundrius subspecies (Threatened in April 1978 and Special Concern in April 1992) and pealei subspecies (Special Concern in April 1978, April 1999 and November 2001). In April 2007, the Peregrine Falcon in Canada was assessed as two separate units: pealei subspecies and anatum/tundrius. Peregrine Falcon anatum/tundrius was designated Special Concern in April 2007. Status re-examined and designated Not at Risk in November 2017.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix I

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Breeds across North American tundra from northern Alaska east across northern Canada to the ice-free perimeter of Greenland. Winters in Latin America from Cuba and Mexico south through Central and South America (Palmer 1988, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Total number of occurrences unknown. Approximately 500 breeding sites known, but large areas of the subspecies' range, particularly in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Greenland, have not been surveyed. Existing data is insufficient to provide an upper number limit on breeding sites (T. Swem, pers. com. 1993); an initial estimate may be 2,000-5,000 pairs, but the number could possibly range as high as 10,000 pairs.

Population Size: 2500 - 10,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total population size unknown. Survey data are very limited, particularly in the Northwest Territories and Greenland. Approximately 500 pairs are known (Swem pers. com. 1993), but the population could range from 2,000 up to 10,000 pairs rangewide. Mattox (cited in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993) estimates that there are 1,000-2,000 breeding sites in Greenland alone. The available data are simply insufficient to provide any reasonable level of confidence on the upper limit of population size.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat loss, human disturbance, pesticide poisoning on the wintering grounds, and illegal take may all affect the recovery of this subspecies. However, while the rate of habitat modification in nesting, migration, and wintering areas is increasing, the numbers of arctic peregrines nearly tripled between the mid 1970s and early 1990s. This suggests that habitat modification does not currently threaten the continued existence of the subspecies (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993). Although DDT and associated organochlorine pesticides were banned in the United States and Canada in the early 1970s, such chemicals are still in use in Latin America where the birds winter. Records of egg shell contamination, however, have shown a steady decline in the amount of pesticide residue found in the shells. The levels now appear to be below that which affects productivity (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993). Illegal take (including egg collecting, shooting, and harvest for falconry) can occur, but these activities are so regulated by federal and international laws that they are not considered significant in having any affect on the reproductive success of the subspecies.

Short-term Trend: Increase of >10%
Short-term Trend Comments: Increasing across range (USFWS 1994).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Annual or biannual inventories of representative areas are needed to assess population recovery.

Protection Needs: Identification and protection of critical habitats subject to modification and loss.

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Breeds across North American tundra from northern Alaska east across northern Canada to the ice-free perimeter of Greenland. Winters in Latin America from Cuba and Mexico south through Central and South America (Palmer 1988, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CO, GA, MD, OR, SC, TX, WA, WI
Canada BC, MB, NT, NU, ON, QC, YT

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Arctic peregrine falcon. A medium-sized falcon.
General Description: A falcon with long pointed wings, a dark crown and nape, and a dark wedge extending below the eye; forehead is pale in immature, which are mainly brownish above rather than black/gray as in adults (NGS 1983).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Plumage is paler than that of other North American subspecies.
Reproduction Comments: See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.
Ecology Comments: See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river, Tidal flat/shore
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Cliff, Tundra
Habitat Comments: See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore
Food Comments: See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.
Length: 51 centimeters
Weight: 1500 grams
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.
Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Determination of the extent to which this subspecies is subject to pesticide poisoning, shooting, and disturbance on its wintering grounds. Determination of changes in food availability on wintering grounds and along migration routes. Determination of the affect and rate of habitat modification on habitat use patterns on the breeding grounds, wintering grounds, and along the migration routes.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Apr1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: West, E. Partially revised by G. Hammerson.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 25Jan1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G., REVISED BY S. CANNINGS

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1957. The A.O.U. Check-list of North American Birds, 5th ed. Port City Press, Inc., Baltimore, MD. 691 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • B83COM01NAUS - Added from 2005 data exchange with Alberta, Canada.

  • COSEWIC. 2007e. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus (pealei subspecies - Falco peregrinus pealei and anatum/tundrius - Falco peregrinus anatum/tundrius) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vii + 45pp.

  • Cade, T.J. 1982. The Falcons of the World. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 192 pp.

  • Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, and M. C. E. McNall. 1990a. The Birds of British Columbia. Volume 1. Nonpasserines: Introduction and loons through waterfowl. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, BC, Canada. 514 pp.

  • Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G.W. Kaiser, and M.C.E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia Vol. 2: Nonpasserines: Diurnal Birds of Prey through Woodpeckers. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC.

  • Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G.W. Kaiser, and M.C.E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia. Vol. 1. Nonpasserines: introduction and loons through waterfowl. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. 514 pp.

  • Cannings, R.J. 1998. The Birds of British Columbia - a taxonomic catalogue. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Wildl. Branch, Victoria, Wildl. Bull. B-86. 266pp.

  • Colorado Bird Observatory. 1996. DRAFT 1996 Status of Colorado Birds. Submitted to Colorado Division of Wildlife. December 31, 1996. 137 p.

  • Cooper, J.M., and S.M. Beauchesne. 2004. Status of the Peregrine Falcon in British Columbia (Falco peregrinus) in British Columbia. B.C. Minist. Water, Land and Air Prot., Biodiversity Branch, Victoria, BC. Wildl. Bull. No. B-115.

  • Demarchi, M.W. and M.D. Bently. 2005. Best Management Practices for Raptor Conservation during Urban and Rural Land Development in British Columbia. B.C. Minist. of Environ., Victoria, B.C. MoE BMP Series.

  • Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy: the Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.

  • GEHLBACH, FREDERICK R. 1991. THE EAST-WEST TRANSITION ZONE OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES IN CENTRAL TEXAS: A BIOGEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS. TEXAS J. SCI. 43(4):415-427.

  • Godfrey, W. E. 1986. The birds of Canada. Revised edition. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa. 596 pp. + plates.

  • Godfrey, W.E. 1986. The Birds of Canada. Revised edition. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottowa, Canada. 595 pp.

  • Harris, J. 1979. The peregrine falcon in Greenland: observing an endangered species. Univ. Missouri Press. 255 pp.

  • Hayes, G.E. and J.B. Buchanan. 2002. Washington State status report for the peregrine falcon. Washington Dpt. Fish and Wildlife. Olympia, WA. 77 pp.

  • Jewett, S.G., W.P. Taylor, W.T. Shaw, and J.W. Aldrich. 1953. Birds of Washington State. U. Washington Press. 767 pp.

  • Johnson, S. R. and D. R. Herter. 1989. The Birds of the Beaufort Sea. BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc., Anchorage, Alaska. 372 pp.

  • King, W. B., compiler. 1979. Endangered birds of the world. The International Council for Bird Preservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. [Reprinted in handbook form in 1981.]

  • National Geographic Society (NGS). 1983. Field guide to the birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC.

  • Palmer, R. S., ed. 1988b. Handbook of North American birds. Vol. 5. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven. 465 pp.

  • Palmer, R. S., editor. 1988a. Handbook of North American birds. Vol. 4. [Diurnal raptors, part 1]. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. vii + 433 pp.

  • Palmer, R.S. (ed.). 1988. Handbook of North American Birds. Vol. 4. Diurnal raptors, Part 1. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, CT. 433 pp.

  • Shank, C. C., R. G. Bromley, and K. G. Poole. 1993. Increase in breeding population of tundra peregrine falcons in the central Canadian arctic. Wilson Bull. 105:188-190.

  • Skaggs, R. W., et al. 1988. Peregrine falcon. Pages 127-136 in Glinski et al., eds. Proc. Southwest raptor management symposium and workshop. Natural Wildlife Fed. Science and Tech. Ser. No. 11.

  • Smith, M.R., P.W. Mattocks, Jr., and K.M. Cassidy. 1997. Breeding birds of Washington State. Vol. 4. IN Washington State Gap analysis - Final report (K.M. Cassidy, C.E. Grue., M.R. Smith, and K.M. Dvornich, eds.). Seattle Audubon Society Publications in Zoology No. 1, Seattle, 538 pp.

  • Swem, T. 1993. Letter to E. West, AKNHP zoologist, with review comments on EGR for arctic peregrine falcon. 14 October 1993. 3 pp.

  • Swem, T. 1993. Letter to E. West, AKNHP zoologist, with review comments on EGR for arctic peregrine falcon. 14 October 1993. 3p.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Endangered and threatened species recovery program: report to Congress. 406 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1991. Request for information on the Arctic and American peregrine falcons. Federal Register 56(113):26969-26971.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; proposal to remove the arctic peregrine falcon from the list of endangered and threatened wildlife. Federal Register 58(188):51035-51045.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Proposal to remove the arctic peregrine falcon from the list of endangered and threatened wildlife. Federal Register 58(188):51035-51045. 30 September 1993.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1994. Removal of arctic peregrine falcon from the list of endangered and threatened wildlife. Federal Register 59(192):50796-50805. 5 October 1994.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1999. Final rule to remove the American Peregrine Falcon from the federal list of endangered and threatened wildlife, and to remove the similarity of appearance provision for free-flying Peregrines in the conterminous United States. Federal Register 64 (164):46542-46558.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; proposal to remove the arctic peregrine falcon from the list of endangered and threatened wildlife. Federal Register 58(188):51035-51045, Thursday, September 30, 1993.

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