Frasera coloradensis - (Rogers) D.M. Post
Colorado Gentian
Synonym(s): Swertia coloradensis Rogers
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Frasera coloradensis (Rogers) D.M. Post (TSN 502652)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.136431
Element Code: PDGEN05040
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Gentian Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Gentianales Gentianaceae Frasera
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Frasera coloradensis
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 24Oct2012
Global Status Last Changed: 24Oct2012
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Known only from the southeastern corner of Colorado, where there are about 28 occurrences within less than approximately 300 acres. This species probably has the most limited distribution of any plant endemic to the Great Plains (a floristic region comprised mostly of plants with wide distributions). Cattle are not excluded from most of the sites where the species occurs and mid- to late-summer grazing can prevent the plants from producing mature seed. Population appears healthy throughout its range except where herbicide application has occurred which is mainly along roadsides (Naumann 1991).
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Colorado (S2S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Colorado endemic; documented habitat less than 300 acres; potential undocumented habitat is estimated at about 1,000 acres (Naumann 1991). Total range is about 25 miles x 75 miles. These numbers were not recalculated in 2009. This species is known from four counties: Baca, Bent, Prowers, and Las Animas.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: 28 occurrences; all but three have been observed since at least 1990 (Colorado Natural Heritage Program database).

Population Size Comments: Roughly 9,500 individuals documented to date (Colorado Natural Heritage Program database 2009).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: There are thirteen occurrences ranked A or B.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Moderately threatened by agricultural and road management practices such as herbicide application; grazing may suppress reproduction, but probably doesn't frequently kill established plants except in cases of overgrazing; primary threat is inadvertant loss or alteration of naturally limited habitat (Naumann 1991). Wind energy development is another potential threat as of 2009.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Currently, population is probably stable with some moderate historical declines related to agricultural practices (declines from agriculture are considered insignificant because F. coloradensis habitat is not ideally suited for agriculture) (Naumann 1991).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: No evidence of disease or parasitism has been observed; population appears to be healthy (Naumann 1991).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Colorado endemic; documented habitat less than 300 acres; potential undocumented habitat is estimated at about 1,000 acres (Naumann 1991). Total range is about 25 miles x 75 miles. These numbers were not recalculated in 2009. This species is known from four counties: Baca, Bent, Prowers, and Las Animas.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Baca (08009), Bent (08011), Las Animas (08071), Prowers (08099)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
11 Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009)+, Purgatoire (11020010)+, Two Butte (11020013)+, Cimarron headwaters (11040001)+, Sand Arroyo (11040004)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A perennial herb with several branched flowering stems up to 3 dm tall bearing white or greenish-white flowers with purple dots. The plants exist for several years as a vegetative rosette before flowering, and they may bloom only once before dying. The flowering period is June-July. The narrow, white-margined leaves are distinctive.
Habitat Comments: Low sandy/sandstone breaks in grasslands, northerly aspects in between rocks or just below them; shallow slopes. Associated with surface outcrops or shallow-to-bedrock occurrences of Cretaceous rock formations, including Greenhorn limestone, Graneros shale and Dakota sandstone. Plant community generally shortgrass prairie or mixed prairie breaks. Substrate best indicator for locations of this species. 1200-1623 m (Naumann 1991).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Oct2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Peterson, J.S., rev. Maybury/Spackman (1996), DT Wasinger, rev. S.S. Panjabi 2009

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Colorado Native Plant Society. 1989. Rare plants of Colorado. Rocky Mountain Nature Association, Colorado Native Plant Society, Estes Park, Colorado. 73 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Locklear, J. 1989. Plight of the Colorado gentian. Bulletin Board 4(1): 55.

  • Naumann, T.S. 1991. Status Report for Frasera coloradensis. Unpublished report prepared for the Colorado Natural Areas Program, Denver, CO.

  • Rocky Mountain Society of Botanical Artists. 2009. RARE Imperiled Plants of Colorado, a traveling art exhibition. Exhibition catalogue developed by the Denver Botanic Gardens and Steamboat Art Museum.

  • Ryke, N., D. Winters, L. McMartin and S. Vest. 1994. Threatened, Endangered and Sensitive Species of the Pike and San Isabel National Forests and Comanche and Cimarron National Grasslands. May 25, 1994.

  • Spackman, S., B. Jennings, J. Coles, C. Dawson, M. Minton, A. Kratz, C. Spurrier, and T. Skadelandl. 1996. Colorado rare plant field guide. Prepared for the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins.

  • Spackman, S., B. Jennings, J. Coles, C. Dawson, M. Minton, A. Kratz, and C. Spurrier. 1997. Colorado rare plant field guide. Prepared for Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service by Colorado Natural Heritage Program.

  • USDA, NRCS. 2012. The PLANTS Database (). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

  • Weber, W. A. and R. C. Wittmann. 2012. Colorado Flora, Eastern Slope, A Field Guide to the Vascular Plants, Fourth Edition. Boulder, Colorado. 555 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of October 2015.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2015 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2015. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.