Eurycea tynerensis - Moore and Hughes, 1939
Oklahoma Salamander
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Eurycea tynerensis Moore and Hughes, 1939 (TSN 173697)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101901
Element Code: AAAAD05120
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Salamanders
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Caudata Plethodontidae Eurycea
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Eurycea tynerensis
Taxonomic Comments: See Tumlison et al. (1990) for information on distinguishing E. TYNERENSIS from E. MULTIPLICATA GRISEOGASTER. Preliminary electrophoretic data indicate that E. TYNERENSIS is restricted to a few counties in eastern Oklahoma; populations in Arkansas and Missouri are not genetically distinct from E. MULTIPLICATA GRISEOGASTER (Wilkinson, in Figg 1991). Further study is warranted.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Oct2003
Global Status Last Changed: 18Oct2001
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Locally abundant in small range in Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Missouri (but may be restricted to Oklahoma); potentially threatened by habitat loss/degradation (impoundments, siltation, pollution).
Nation: United States
National Status: N3 (05Nov1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (S4), Oklahoma (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: NT - Near threatened

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: Unknown
Range Extent Comments: According to Bury et al. (1980), range includes the drainages of the Neosho and Illinois rivers, Springfield Plateau section of Ozark plateaus of southwestern Missouri (McDonald County), northwestern Arkansas (Benton, Washington, and Carroll counties), and northeastern Oklahoma (Adair, Cherokee, Delaware, Mayes, and Ottawa counties). Petranka (1998) also indicated that the range includes eastern Oklahoma, southwestern Missouri, and northwestern Arkansas. However, preliminary electrophoretic data indicate that E. TYNERENSIS is restricted to a few counties in eastern Oklahoma; populations in Arkansas and Missouri are not genetically distinct from E. MULTIPLICATA GRISEOGASTER (Wilkinson, in Figg 1991). Johnson (2000) accordingly did not recognize E. TYNERENSIS as a member of the Missouri herpetofauna.

Number of Occurrences: Unknown
Number of Occurrences Comments: Found at 50 of 213 sites examined in three states (Tumlison and Cline 2003). However, there is uncertainty regarding the true distribution of this salamander.

Population Size: Unknown
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown.

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by direct habitat destruction (e.g., flooding by impoundments), and by activities (agriculture, urbanization, stream channelization, gravel removal) that result in silting or pollution of aquatic habitat (Bury et al. 1980).

Short-term Trend Comments: No data but likely stable in extent of occurrence and probably stable to slightly declining in population size, area of occupancy, and number/condition of occurrences.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Likely stable in extent of occurrence, unknown trend in population size, area of occurrence, and number/condition of occurrences.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Highly to moderately vulnerable.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow to narrow.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Inventory is relatively complete.

Protection Needs: Address threats. Protect Camp Egan site.

Distribution
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Global Range: (Unknown) According to Bury et al. (1980), range includes the drainages of the Neosho and Illinois rivers, Springfield Plateau section of Ozark plateaus of southwestern Missouri (McDonald County), northwestern Arkansas (Benton, Washington, and Carroll counties), and northeastern Oklahoma (Adair, Cherokee, Delaware, Mayes, and Ottawa counties). Petranka (1998) also indicated that the range includes eastern Oklahoma, southwestern Missouri, and northwestern Arkansas. However, preliminary electrophoretic data indicate that E. TYNERENSIS is restricted to a few counties in eastern Oklahoma; populations in Arkansas and Missouri are not genetically distinct from E. MULTIPLICATA GRISEOGASTER (Wilkinson, in Figg 1991). Johnson (2000) accordingly did not recognize E. TYNERENSIS as a member of the Missouri herpetofauna.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, OK

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Benton (05007), Stone (05137), Washington (05143)
OK Adair (40001), Cherokee (40021), Delaware (40041), Mayes (40097), Ottawa (40115)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
11 Middle White (11010004)+, Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206)+, Elk (11070208)+, Lower Neosho (11070209)+, Illinois (11110103)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small salamander.
Reproduction Comments: Reportedly breeds in fall or late spring. Paedomorphic.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Subterranean Habitat(s): Subaquatic
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Small, clear, spring-fed streams with temperatures normally <24 C; at elevations below 305 m; substrate coarse sand, gravel, or bedrock; hides under or among rocks or in submerged vegetation (Bury et al. 1980). Closely associated with Ordovician-Silurian strata (Tumlison and Cline 2003). Typically in gravelly (primarily chert) substrates; inhabits interstices between stones and pebbles in coarse loose sand under cold swift shallow water; lives below substrate surface during drought (references cited by Tumlison et al. 1990). Surface populations most commonly found in shallow (<10 mm), slowly moving (usually <10 cm/sec) water with medium sized rocks (65-256 mm diameter), moderate degrees of embeddedness (about 50%), and with high densities of aquatic invertebrates (Tumlison et al. 1990). May use karst system to move within or between stream systems (Tumlison et al. 1990). Eggs are laid on undersides of rocks.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: In western Ozarks, surface populations apparently forage near stream edges and consume prey as available, especially chironomids, mayflies, and isopods; subterranean isopods also recorded in diet (Tumlison et al. 1990).
Length: 8 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Investigate reproductive biology.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Aquatic/Wetland Plethodontid Salamanders

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy highway, especially with high traffic volume at night; other totally inappropriate habitat that the salamanders cannot traverse.
Alternate Separation Procedure: Separation distance for stream-dwelling species along riverine corridors: 10 stream km. Separation distance for other freshwater aquatic and wetland habitats: 3 km. Separation distance for upland habitat: 1 km.
Separation Justification: These salamanders rarely successfully cross roadways that have heavy traffic volume at night, when most movements occur. Salamanders in this Specs Group, except strictly subterranean species, tend to be able to traverse upland habitat when conditions are wet, and generally they can pass through atypical wetland and aquatic habitats to reach another patch of suitable habitat. However, Grover and Wilbur (2002) created replicated seeps at distances of 3, 15, and more than 30 m from streams or natural seeps and found that Desmognathus fuscus and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus colonized the new seeps at 3 m and 15 m but were rare or absent at new seeps more than 30 m from the nearest stream or natural seep.

Although these specifications do not include rivers as barriers, Adams and Beachy (2001) documented morphological variation among populations of Gyrinophilus porphyriticus in the southern Appalachian Mountains and found patterns "consistent with the hypothesis that large rivers restrict sizable gene flow." Large rivers probably function at least as unsuitable habitat for many species in this Specs Group.

Compared to larger ambystomatid salamanders, the movements of plethodontids are poorly documented, but home ranges likely tend to be very small, on the order of a few meters to a few dozen meters in length or diameter. Yet, on occasion, dispersing individuals likely travel at least several hundred meters, and stream-dwelling species likely disperse much farther along riverine corridors. Over a number of years, it is likely that these salamanders can spread multiple kilometers through suitable habitat.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 28Oct2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Oct2003
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Vaughn, C., and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Oct2003
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • Bonett, R. M., and P. T. Chippindale. 2004. Speciation, phylogeography and evolution of life history and morphology in plethodontid salamanders of the Eurycea multiplicata complex. Molecular Ecology 13: 1189-1203.

  • Bury, R. B., C. K. Dodd, Jr., and G. M. Fellers. 1980. Conservation of the Amphibia of the United States: a review. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., Resource Publication 134. 34 pp.

  • Conant, R. and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 450 pp.

  • Dundee, H.A. 1965. Eurycea tynerensis. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. 22.1-22.2..

  • Figg, D. E. 1991. Missouri Department of Conservation Annual Nongame and Endangered Species Report July 1990 - June 1991. ii + 35 pp.

  • Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.

  • Johnson, T. R. 1987. The amphibians and reptiles of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City. 368 pp.

  • Johnson, T.R. 1977. The Amphibians of Missouri. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Public Education Series 6: ix + 134 pp.

  • Tumlison, R., G. R. Cline, and P. Zwank. 1990a. Prey selection in the Oklahoma salamander (EURYCEA TYNERENSIS). J. Herpetol. 24:222-225.

  • Tumlison, R., G. R. Cline, and P. Zwank. 1990b. Morphological discrimination between the Oklahoma salamander (EURYCEA TYNERENSIS) and the graybelly salamander (EURYCEA MULTIPLICATA GRISEOGASTER). Copeia 1990:242-246.

  • Tumlison, R., G. R. Cline, and P. Zwank. 1990c. Surface habitat associations of the Oklahoma salamander (EURYCEA TYNERENSIS). Herpetologica 46:169-175.

  • Tumlison, R., and G. R. Cline. 2003. Association between the Oklahoma salamander (Eurycea tynerensis) and Ordovician-Silurian strata. Southwestern Naturalist 48:93-95.

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