Euphyes bimacula - (Grote and Robinson, 1867)
Two-spotted Skipper
Other English Common Names: two-spotted skipper
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Euphyes bimacula (Grote and Robinson, 1867) (TSN 706608)
French Common Names: hespérie des marais
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.114898
Element Code: IILEP77090
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Hesperiidae Euphyes
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B02OPL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Euphyes bimacula
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Aug2009
Global Status Last Changed: 01Sep1998
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Local but widespread in much of northern range, although rare in Colorado and in the east south of New Jersey. Apparently declining significantly from Massachusetts to Pennsylvania. Seems secure in much of core of range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (01Sep1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (24Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Colorado (S2), Connecticut (S1S2), District of Columbia (SNR), Georgia (S2S3), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S2), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S1?), Maine (S3S4), Maryland (S1), Massachusetts (S1S3), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (S3), Nebraska (SNR), New Hampshire (S3S4), New Jersey (S3), New York (S4), North Carolina (S2), Ohio (S1), Pennsylvania (S2S3), Rhode Island (SU), South Carolina (S1?), Vermont (S1S2), Virginia (S2), West Virginia (S2), Wisconsin (S3S4)
Canada New Brunswick (S3), Nova Scotia (SU), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: From New England and Ontario south to South Carolina and westward to Wisconsin, Iowa, Nebraska and northeast Colorado.

Number of Occurrences: 21 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: No data, but large range and fairly secure habitat probably means this species is fairly common.

Population Size: 2500 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Has the capability of being abundant locally since females may lay up to 100 eggs.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat generally unsuitable for other uses, but threats include overgrazing and draining and ditching of marshes.

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Very little is known about the trend of this species ecept that it is in a steep decline from Pennsylvania and northern (but not southern) New Jersey at least into Massachusetts.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Can not exist without the marsh or meadow.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Inventory only a priority in areas where rare; south of New Jersey in the eastern half of its range and at the western edge of the range such as in Colorado. In states where rare or declining, suitable habitat should be searched for adults, in most places during June or early July. New occurrences should be documented by specimens preferably, but at least by photographs.

Protection Needs: Preservation of habitat.

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) From New England and Ontario south to South Carolina and westward to Wisconsin, Iowa, Nebraska and northeast Colorado.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, CO, CT, DC, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada NB, NS, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Boulder (08013), Kit Carson (08063), Larimer (08069)*, Morgan (08087)*
CT Litchfield (09005), Middlesex (09007)*
IA Calhoun (19025), Cherokee (19035), Floyd (19067), Iowa (19095), Pocahontas (19151)
IN Kosciusko (18085)*, Lagrange (18087)*, Lake (18089), Newton (18111), Porter (18127), Wabash (18169)*, White (18181), Whitley (18183)*
MD Garrett (24023)
MN Dodge (27039), Morrison (27097)
NC Alleghany (37005), Ashe (37009), Brunswick (37019), Carteret (37031), Craven (37049), Gates (37073), Harnett (37085), Johnston (37101), Jones (37103)*, Moore (37125)*, Northampton (37131), Pender (37141), Pitt (37147), Vance (37181)
NE Buffalo (31019), Cherry (31031), Custer (31041), Holt (31089), Saunders (31155), Sheridan (31161), Stanton (31167)
NJ Atlantic (34001), Burlington (34005), Morris (34027)*, Ocean (34029), Passaic (34031)*, Sussex (34037)*
OH Lorain (39093)
VA Augusta (51015)*, Floyd (51063), Frederick (51069), Grayson (51077), Highland (51091)
VT Bennington (50003), Essex (50009), Grand Isle (50013), Washington (50023)
WV Pocahontas (54075), Tucker (54093)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper Connecticut (01080101)+, Deerfield (01080203)+, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+*, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Rondout (02020007)+*, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+*, Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, South Fork Shenandoah (02070005)+*, North Fork Shenandoah (02070006)+
03 Middle Roanoke (03010102)+, Lower Roanoke (03010107)+, Ghowan (03010203)+, Meheriin (03010204)+, Lower Tar (03020103)+, Upper Neuse (03020201)+, Middle Neuse (03020202)+, Lower Neuse (03020204)+, White Oak River (03020301)+, Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Northeast Cape Fear (03030007)+, Lumber (03040203)+*, Waccamaw (03040206)+, Coastal Carolina (03040208)+
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+*, Black-Rocky (04110001)+, Winooski River (04150403)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Cheat (05020004)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Upper New (05050001)+, Greenbrier (05050003)+, Eel (05120104)+*, Tippecanoe (05120106)+
07 Elk-Nokasippi (07010104)+, Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Lower Iowa (07080209)+, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+, North Raccoon (07100006)+, Kankakee (07120001)+
10 Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003)+*, St. Vrain (10190005)+, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+*, Bijou (10190011)+*, Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012)+*, Lower Platte (10200202)+, Lower Middle Loup (10210003)+, South Loup (10210004)+, Upper North Loup (10210006)+, Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, Lower Elkhorn (10220003)+, Little Sioux (10230003)+, South Fork Republican (10250003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Butterfly, Hesperiidae.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Exact habitat needs are not known but in general bogs, sedge meadows, sedge marshes along streams and sometimes openings in swamps.
Adult Food Habits: Nectarivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Larvae feed on CAREX sedges but information is very limited as to which ones.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: Adults in June in most of range. Two broods in extreme south. Hibernation in one of the mid instars.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Much more research is needed on behavior, life cycle, determination of natural larval food plants.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Euphyes, Poanes and other Wetland Skippers

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A location where the species occurs, or has occurred, where there is potential for persistence or regular recurrence. Minimally a wetland with the larval foodplant where at least one adult has been verified by a photograph or preferably a specimen. Photographs must be diagnostic and will probably need to show both wing surfaces, and there may be circumstances where only a specimen will suffice. Specimens are much easier to obtain.
Mapping Guidance: Habitat patches are usually discrete, small and easily defined by the dominance of the foodplant. Most or all other species use both open and semi-shaded patches but E. DUKESII is a forest or woodland species. Consult the habitat and food comments fields for species-specific information on what constitutes suitable habitat when mapping occurrences of these species.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Within a wetland complex consider multiple colonies as one metapopulation by using the suitable habitat distance.
Separation Justification: Adults of these species sometimes to often (e.g. E. dion alabamae) stray out of habitat and even the sedentary P. massasoit as well as both subspecies of E. dion will move a kilometer or more for nectar. However, habitats are often small (a few hectares) and populations often appear small (20 or less on a given day) so relatively conservative separation distances seem reasonable. Certainly a distance of a few km will provide a large amount of separation even if not a complete lack of gene flow. However apply the suitable habitat figure when two collection sites are along the same river, same wetland complex or in other circumstances where at least a few patches of foodplant occur in wet spots between them. Justification for this includes observations of not less than three tiny transient colonies of Euphyes dion alabamae in Cumberland County New Jersey in habitat patches of less than 0.1 hectare with no known source habitat within a kilometer. Thus females do find and oviposit in tiny patches and adults from these as well as the dispersing females themselves should connect multiple source colonies. Suitable habitat patches more than a kilometer in any dimension are rare, so generally colonies more than a few kilometers apart are separate occurrences unless obviously connected. However in such rare cases where habitats are really extensive with foodplant throughout or even dominant there is not reason to believe these skippers should not be likewise.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: The inferred extent is nearly always at least the entire contiguous habitat/foodplant patch since these are usually only a few dozens of hectares at most. Colonies can persist at least decades in under a hectare of really good habitat. If the habitat is really several kilometers in extent it will usually be fully occupied (apparently nearly always so for the better known species) but cap inferred extent at this distance pending further observation.
Date: 14Sep2001
Author: Schweitzer, Dale F.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Aug1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Willson, K., and Schweitzer, D.F.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 25Apr2000

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, T.J. 1997. The butterflies of West Virginia and their caterpillars. Pittsburgh, PA. University of Pittsburgh Press.

  • Belth, Jeffrey E. 2013. Butterflies of Indiana A Field Guide. Indiana University Press.Bloomington, IN.

  • Bess, James. 2005. A Report on the Remnant-Dependent Insects of the Coastal Zone Natural Area Remnants in Northwest Indiana. 23 pp..

  • Ferris, Clifford and F. M. Brown. 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 442 pp.

  • Huber, R. L. 1981. An updated checklist of Minnesota butterflies. Minnesota Entomological Association Newsletter 14(3):15-25.

  • Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall, and J.D. LaFontaine. 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, Canada. 280 pp. + color plates.

  • Natural Resources Commission. 2014. Roster of Indiana Animals, Insects, and Plants That Are Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Rare. Information Bulletin #2 (Sixth Amendment. 20pp.

  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Opler, Paul A., H. Pavulaan, and R.E. Stanford (coordinators). Butterflies of North America. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/lepid/bflyusa/bflyu sa.htm (Version 12Dec2003).

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.

  • Pohl, G.R.  J-F. Landry, B.C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.van Nieukerken, J.R. deWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated checklist of the moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. 580 pp.

  • Pyle, Robert Michael. 1981. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 915 pp.

  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide. Stanford University Press, Stanford CA. 583 pp.

  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

  • Shuey, John. 1995. Indiana S-Ranks for Butterflies. Memorandum to Cloyce Hedge. 10 pp.

  • Shuey, John. 1996. 1995 Butterfly Element Occurrences. Memorandum to Cloyce Hedge. 2 pp plus maps.

  • Shull, Ernest M. 1987. The Butterflies of Indiana. Publ. by Indiana Acad. Science, distributed by Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington/Indianapolis, 262 pp.

  • Stanford, Ray E. and Paul A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Denver and Fort Collins, Colorado. 275 pp.

  • Weber, W. A. and R. C. Wittmann. 1992. Catalog of The Colorado Flora: A Biodiversity Baseline. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, CO.

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