Euphorbia telephioides - Chapman
Telephus Spurge
Other Common Names: telephus spurge
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Euphorbia telephioides Chapman (TSN 28141)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.139231
Element Code: PDEUP0Q1Z0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Spurge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Euphorbiales Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Euphorbia telephioides
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct, one of many species in FL.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Feb2000
Global Status Last Changed: 16Aug1983
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: A Florida endemic known to occur only in Gulf, Franklin, and Bay counties, Florida, with about 40 occurrences but a total of fewer than 5000 plants. The species requires fire, but its coastal habitat is being converted to pine plantations and real estate developments.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (08May1992)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Currently known from Bay, Gulf, and Franklin counties from Panama City Beach to east of Apalachicola.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Population Size Comments: THOUSANDS OF PLANTS SEEN AT SOME RECENTLY DISTURBED SITES, BUT TENDS TO DISAPPEAR AS PINE PLANTATION MATURES

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by habitat degradation due to lack of prescribed fire, by forestry practices (intensive site preparation followed by high pine stocking densities), and by real estate development.

Short-term Trend: Decline of >30%
Short-term Trend Comments: TOTAL NUMBER OF PLANTS KNOWN ON PRIVATE LANDS REDUCED FROM 1000'S IN 1988 SURVEY TO 100'S IN 2001 SURVEY

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Cannot tolerate shade, needs fire to maintain community structure; can survive initial conversion of flatwoods to pine plantation.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Currently known from Bay, Gulf, and Franklin counties from Panama City Beach to east of Apalachicola.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Bay (12005), Franklin (12037), Gulf (12045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Apalachicola (03130011)+, New (03130013)+*, Apalachicola Bay (03130014)+, St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A perennial herb. Stems arising usually well below the ground, solitary or several, growing to 3 dm tall. The foliage is tinged with red. The inflorescence is broader than long, with several male flowers and a single, stalked female flower. Flowers are maroon in color. (Based on Kral 1983.)
Technical Description: Perennial herb with a stout storage root. Numerous stems, up to 30 cm tall. Stems and leaves smooth. Larges leaves are 3-6 cm long, elliptic or oblanceolate, with the midrib and margins usually maroon. Inflorescence broader than long, a compound of leafy-bracted cymes of cyathia, these maroon, 2.5-3 mm long, bearing on their rim 4, short-stalked, half-round, fleshy, greenish-maroon glands alternating with 4 erect, red, roundish to obtuse-angled, scale-like ciliate-fimbriate appendages nearly as high as the glands, the whole cyathium on a slender maroon stalk mostly 3-10 mm long and frequently concealed by the leafy subtending bracts. Fruit a capsule, reniform, ca. 6-8 mm broad and 5 mm high, strongly 3-lobed, each lobe keeled, keel edge maroon. Seeds 1/locule, nearly round, ca. 3 mm across, gray or gray-brown, smooth to minutely pebbled. (Kral, 1983; Martin, 1990)
Diagnostic Characteristics: This species is nearest to E. inundata, a taller plant of moister habitats from northwestern Florida to southern Alabama. E. telephioides is not as bushy, with wider leaves, with fewer cyathia on shorter stalks. The cyathial glands in E. inundata are similar to those in E. telephoides but the scale-like cyathial appendages tend to be lacerate-fimbriate and with mucronate apices. (Kral, 1983)
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Several staminate flowers surrounding a pistillate flower in a cyathium (Gleason, 1952).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Wiregrass dominated, longleaf pine-slash pine savanna/flatwoods or on contiguous low, sandy rises dominated by pine-scrub oak near the coast.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Euphorbia spp of panhandle scrub-flatwoods-EOSPECS

Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any naturally occurring population of 1 or more individuals in suitable habitat
Separation Barriers: clearing and development of habitat; fire-suppressed scrub and flatwoods.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 1 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: N/A
Date: 18Sep2003
Author: Norden, A.H. and L.G. Chafin
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
Justification: Use the Generic Guidelines for the Application of Occurrence Ranks (2008).
The Key for Ranking Species Occurrences Using the Generic Approach provides a step-wise process for implementing this method.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Dec1988
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Greene, L. rev. C. Russell; rev. D.L. White (1988); rev. A. F. Johnson (2001)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16Jun1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • CLEWELL, ANDRE F. 1985. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, FL. 605 PP.

  • Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to vascular plants of the Florida panhandle. Florida State Univ. Press, Tallahassee, Florida. 605 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 12. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae to Garryaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiv + 603 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990. Proposed threatened status for three Florida plants. Federal Register 55(243): 51936-51940.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1992. Threatened status for three Florida plants. Federal Register 57(90): 19813-19819.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.