Eumops floridanus - (G. M. Allen, 1932)
Florida Bonneted Bat
Other English Common Names: Florida Mastiff Bat
Synonym(s): Eumops glaucinus floridanus (G.M. Allen, 1932)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104958
Element Code: AMACD02031
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Bats
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Chiroptera Molossidae Eumops
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B81HAL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Eumops glaucinus floridanus
Taxonomic Comments: Eger (1977) revised the genus and recognized E. g. floridanus (Allen 1932) in Florida and E. g. glaucinus in Cuba, Jamaica, Central America, and South America. Timm and Genoways (2004) examined range-wide geographic variation in morphology and concluded that Eumops floridanus should be recognized as a distinct species. Simmons (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) included floridanus as a subspecies of E. glaucinus, but Timm and Genoways (2004) was published too late for review by Simmons, who did state that E. glaucinus (including floridanus) may include more than one species.
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 27Oct2014
Global Status Last Changed: 09Jan1997
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Small range confined to southern Florida; 3-4 subpopulations; likely fewer than 1,000 mature individuals; uses a wide range of natural and urban/suburban habitats, roosts in Spanish tile roofs, and may colonize newly installed bat houses of appropriate design; vulnerable to ongoing loss and degradation of habitat, and extirpation of local roosting populations, from human activities, climate change, and stochastic events such as hurricanes; vulnerable to population declines from effects of non-native species.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (09Jan1997)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (02Oct2013)
Comments on USESA: Removed from U.S. ESA candidate listed in 1996, due to apparent greater abundance than previously known (USFWS 1996). Added back as a candidate in 2009 due to immiment threats (USFWS 2009) and is now listed endangered (USFWS 2013).
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast
IUCN Red List Category: CR - Critically endangered

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The range encompasses several counties in southern Florida; the degree of use of different areas within the documented range is not well known (USFWS 2013).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of distinct occurrences has not been determined using standardized criteria, but this species is represented by a small number of known roosting colonies (estimated at 26 in 2012) (Marks and Marks, cited by USFWS 2013). USFWS (2013) estimated 3-4 subpopulations.

Population Size: 250 - 1000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown, possibly in the hundreds or low thousands (T. Fleming, pers. comm., cited by USFWS 2013) or around 286 (assuming 26 colonies averaging 11 individuals) (Marks and Marks, cited by USFWS 2013), or fewer than 1,000 mature individuals (USFWS 2013). The species roosts singly or in small groups.

The colony using bat houses on private property in Lee County has consisted of 8 to 25 individuals; as of March 2013, there were 20 bats using two houses at this location (S. Trokey, cited by USFWS 2013).

At the Fred C. Babcock/Cecil M. Webb Wildlife Management Area (Babcock-Webb WMA), 39 to 43 individuals used 3 to 5 separate roosts (all bat houses) during periodic simultaneous counts conducted on 4 occasions in the early 2010s; simultaneous counts taken at emergence on 2 April 2013, at 4 roosts sites, documented 39 individuals with the number at each roost as follows: 37, 1, 1, and 0 (J. Myers, pers. comm. 2013, cited by USFWS 2013). Recent PIT-tagging by FFWCC at Babcock-Webb WMA revealed at least 84 unique individuals as of November 2014 (K. Gillies, pers. comm., 2015).

A roost discovered at Avon Park Air Force Range in November 2013 had at least 21 individuals in October 2014 (K. Gillies, pers. comm., 2015).

A new roost was located near the Grenada Golf Course in Coral Gables and confirmed by the USFWS and FFWCC in October 2014; at least 6 individuals were present. This site is in an abandoned mansion and is privately owned. There is concern about renovations of the property and the impacts to the colony (K. Gillies, pers. comm,, 2015).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: None to very few (0-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: All of the known occurrences are relatively small and may have less than good viability, yet they probably have a good probability of persistence for the foreseeable future. This species has appeared to exist in low numbers for several decades (Timm and Genoways 2004).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: This bat is vulnerable to habitat loss (in urban and forested areas), habitat alteration (removal of old trees with cavities, or buildings with spaces suitable for roosting), and detrimental effects of pesticide spraying for mosquitoes. The last may be responsible for the species' decline in the Miami area, as roosting sites are still abundant. Severe hurricanes may cause loss of older trees with roosting cavities. Hurricane Andrew, an intense Category 5 hurricane that struck southeastern Florida in 1992, may have had a significant impact upon the already low population of bonneted bats (Timm and Genoways 2004).

USFWS (2013) summarized threats as follows: Habitat loss, degradation, and modification from human population growth and associated development and agriculture have impacted the Florida bonneted bat and are expected to further curtail its limited range. The effects resulting from climate change, including sea-level rise and coastal squeeze, are expected to become severe in the future and result in additional habitat losses, including the loss of roost sites and foraging habitat. The species is also facing threats from a wide array of natural and manmade factors, including small population size, restricted range, few colonies, slow reproduction, low fecundity, and relative isolation. Existing regulatory mechanisms are inadequate to reduce these threats. Overall, impacts from increasing threats, operating singly or in combination, place the species at risk of extinction. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is not currently known to be a threat to this species, but it is possible that disease will have a greater impact on the Florida bonneted bat in the future. The extent to which predation (e.g., by non-native species) may be impacting the Florida bonneted bat is unknown, but given the species' apparent small population size and overall vulnerability, it is reasonable to assume that predation is a potential threat, which may increase in the future. Further study is required to more fully assess the risk that pesticides and contaminants pose to the Florida bonneted bat.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but the population likely declined (degree of decline unknown). Three generations = about 15-30 years (see USFWS 2013).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Long-term Trend Comments: Due to a lack of adequate information, the long-term trend cannot be reliably assessed, but the distribution and abundance likely have declined to some degree. This bat formerly may have been common on Florida's eastern coast in the Miami-Coral Gables area, but it has been reported there only a few times since the mid-1960s. One of the few occurrences in southwestern Florida was destroyed.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Highly vulnerable
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: This bat exhibits low fecundity (individual females produce only one young at a time).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Further search for roosting sites and associated foraging areas is needed. Such efforts should employ acoustic equipment capable of detecting Eumops.

Protection Needs: Every effort should be made to protect existing roosts and their surrounding habitats.

Global Range: (5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)) The range encompasses several counties in southern Florida; the degree of use of different areas within the documented range is not well known (USFWS 2013).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single state or province

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2005

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Charlotte (12015), Collier (12021), Lee (12071), Miami-Dade (12086), Okeechobee (12093), Osceola (12097), Polk (12105)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Kissimmee (03090101)+, Big Cypress Swamp (03090204)+, Caloosahatchee (03090205)+, Florida Southeast Coast (03090206)+, Peace (03100101)+, Charlotte Harbor (03100103)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Basic Description: Florida mastiff bat; Molossidae
General Description: Dorsum black or brownish-gray to cinnamon-brown, slightly paler grayish below; fur is short and glossy; hairs are bicolored, lighter at the base; distal half of tail projects beyond interfemoral membrane; the largest bat in Florida, where total length is 126-165 mm; forearm length 57.9-69.2 mm; hind foot 10.8-15.0 mm; leathery rounded ears are joined at the midline and project forward, ear length 19.9-31.0 mm; tragus broad and truncate distally; mass 30.2 g to at least 55.4 g in pregnant females (Belwood 1992, Hall 1981).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from Tadarida brasiliensis in being larger (maximum total length of brasiliensis is about 105 mm) and having the ears joined at the midline. No other Florida bats have a tail that extends far beyond the interfemoral membrane.
Reproduction Comments: Eumops floridanus apparently has a fairly extensive breeding season during the spring and summer months; examination of the limited available data suggests that it may be polyestrous, with a second birthing season perhaps in January-February (Timm and Genoways 2004). Litter size is 1. This species forms small maternity colonies, each of which may be defended by a single male (Belwood 1992).
Ecology Comments: Roosting occurs singly or in groups of up to a few dozen individuals. These bats are strong fliers and can take flight from horizontal surfaces.
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: These bats are not migratory, but they may make seasonal shifts in roost locations (Belwood 1992, Timm and Genoways 2004). They are strong flyers that may make extensive flights from roost sites to foraging areas; however, movements have not been studied in detail (USFWS 2013).
Riverine Habitat(s): Aerial
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Aerial
Palustrine Habitat(s): Aerial, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Suburban/orchard, Urban/edificarian, Woodland - Conifer
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Florida bonneted bats occur in a wide range of habitats in urban, suburban, forested, and open areas, including areas with hardwoods or pines, mangroves, golf courses, and spaces over water bodies and wetlands, They roost in buildings (e.g., in attics, rock or brick chimneys of fireplaces, and especially under Spanish roof tiles, often in structures dating from about 1920-1930), bat houses, sometimes in tree hollows (including those made by woodpeckers), occasionally in foliage of palm trees (e.g., shafts of royal palm leaves). They also have been found under rocks, in fissures in limestone outcrops, and near excavations (Layne 1978, Timm and Genoways 2004). In a pine flatwoods community, several were found in a longleaf pine in a cavity 4.6 meters above ground; the cavity had been excavated by red-cockaded woodpeckers and enlarged by a pileated woodpecker (Belwood 1992); this tree was later cut down in conjunction with road construction. At present, no active, natural roost sites are known; all known active roost sites are in bat houses (USFWS 2013). The bats are fast, high flyers (most often 9 meters or more above ground) that forage over trees or open spaces including golf courses (Marks and Marks 2006).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Diet includes flying insects (e.g., Coleoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera) (Belwood 1992, USFWS 2013). Foraging occurs high in open spaces; the bats use echolocation to detect prey at relatively long distances (3-5 meters) (see Belwood 1992).
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: These bats are active year round (USFWS 2013).

Groups in bat houses emerged to forage an average of 40 minutes after sunset or 26-46 minutes after sunset (Marks and Marks 2006, USFWS 2013).

Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 17 centimeters
Weight: 47 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary
Management Requirements: Discontinue pesticide spraying for any area known to be used by species. Educate public about bats, especially this very rare species.
Management Research Needs: Virtually nothing is known of the life history or ecology of this bat. Research is needed on all aspects of its life.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Group Name: Bonneted Bats

Use Class: Not applicable
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population. Includes mist net captures or other detections away from roost sites obtained during the nonbreeding season even if the actual roost site(s) are not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals.
Mapping Guidance: The EO includes both the colony site and the associated foraging areas. If separate, the colony site and foraging areas are bounded by separate polygons; that is, areas over which the bats simply commute to and from foraging areas and the colony are not included in the EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: These bats are strong, fast flyers that undertake foraging flights exceeding 6 hours. Foraging excursions of Eumops perotis may extend more than 24 kilometers from the diurnal roost (Vaughan 1959). Eumops perotis is not migratory, but in the northern portion of the range this species may shift seasonally among different sites. Population structure is unknown.

Movement characteristics of these highly mobile bats might suggest separation distance of tens of kilometers. However, this would result in occurrences of unwieldy spatial scope. It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations. However, include in the same occurrence (1) any roost sites between which individuals are known to move, regardless of how far apart they are, and (2) known significant foraging areas of occurrences that are based on roost sites.

Date: 29Mar2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 16Mar2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Apr2015
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Barbour, R. W., and W. H. Davis. 1969. Bats of America. The University of Kentucky Press, Lexington, Kentucky. 286 pp.

  • Belwood, J. J. 1992. Florida mastiff bat Eumops glaucinus floridanus. Pages 216-223 in S. R. Humphrey, editor. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Vol. I. Mammals. Univ. Press of Florida, Gainesville. xviii + 392 pp.

  • Bradley, R.D., L.K. Ammerman, R.J. Baker, L.C. Bradley, J.A. Cook. R.C. Dowler, C. Jones, D.J. Schmidly, F.B. Stangl Jr., R.A. Van den Bussche and B. Würsig. 2014. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2014. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 327:1-28. Available at:

  • Eger, J. L. 1977. Systematics of the genus Eumops (Chiroptera: Molossidae). Royal Ontario Museum. Life Sciences Contributions 110:1-69.

  • Goodwin, R. E. 1970. The ecology of Jamaican bats. J. Mamm. 51:571-579.


  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Hamilton, W. J., Jr., and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1979. Mammals of the eastern United States. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York. 346 pp.

  • Honacki, J. H., K. E. Kinman, and J. W. Koepf (eds.). 1982. Mammal species of the world. Allen Press, Inc. and Assoc. Syst. Coll., Lawrence, Kansas. 694 pp.

  • Humphrey, S.R. (editor). 1992. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Vol. I. Mammals. Univ. Press of Florida, Gainesville. xviii + 392 pp.

  • Layne, J. N., editor. 1978. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Vol. 1. Mammals. State of Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission. xx + 52 pp.

  • Marks, C. S., and G. E. Marks. 2006. Bats of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. xii + 176 pp.

  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's mammals of the world. Fifth edition. Vols. I and II. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore. 1629 pp.

  • Silva Taboada, G. 1979. Los murcielagos de Cuba. Acad. de Ciencias de Cuba, La Habana, Cuba. xiii + 423 pp.

  • Timm, R. M., and H. H. Genoways. 2004. The Florida bonneted bat, Eumops floridanus (Chiroptera: Molossidae): distribution, morphometrics, systematics, and ecology. Journal of Mammalogy 85:852-865.

  • U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2013. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; endangered species status for the Florida Bonneted Bat; final rule. Federal Register 78(231):72058-72059.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1996. Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Reclassification of 96 Candidate taxa. Federal Register 61(40):7457-7463.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2 October 2013. Endangered status for the Florida bonneted bat. Federal Register 78(191):61004-61043.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2009. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule. Federal Register 74(215):57804-57878.

  • Vaughan, T. A. 1959. Functional morphology of three bats: Eumops, Myotis, and Macrotus. University of Kansas Publ., Museum of Natural History 12:1-153.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at:

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.