Euderma maculatum - (J.A. Allen, 1891)
Spotted Bat
Other English Common Names: spotted bat
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Euderma maculatum (J. A. Allen, 1891) (TSN 180010)
French Common Names: oreillard maculé
Spanish Common Names: Un Murciélago
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104813
Element Code: AMACC07010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Bats
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Euderma
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Euderma maculatum
Taxonomic Comments: Frost and Timm (1992) evaluated morphological and karyological characters and concluded that Idionycteris phyllotis and Euderma maculatum are sister species and that both belong in the genus Euderma (Idionycteris phyllotis would become E. phyllote). Chromosomal data presented by Qumsiyeh and Bickham (1993) also indicate a close relationship between Euderma and Idionycteris. However, Tumlison and Douglas (1992) examined morphological variation in plecotine bats and kept Idionycteris and Euderma as distinct genera. Jones et al. (1992) and Koopman (in Wilson and Reeder 1993) listed this species in the genus Idionycteris but did not cite the recent studies mentioned above. Bogdanowicz et al. (1998) examined morphological and chromosomal variation and concluded that Idionycteris phyllotis and Euderma maculatum should be regarded as generically distinct. In a study of mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences, Hoofer and Van Den Bussche (2001) confirmed that these two genera were indeed closely related, but percent sequence distance coupled with previous morphologic and karyotypic data supported generic distinction between the two. Simmons (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) listed Idionycteris phyllotis and Euderma maculatum as generically distinct.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 05Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Widespread but patchy distribution in western North America; many roost/observation sites and locations; population size unknown but not as rare as previously believed; population trend uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining; primary roosting habitat generally not vulnerable to loss or excessive disturbance; foraging habitat appears to be extensive and not limiting; not often killed by wind turbines; not known to be affected by white-nose syndrome.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3N4 (15Nov2011)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (S2S3), California (S3), Colorado (S2), Idaho (S3), Montana (S3), Navajo Nation (S4), Nevada (S2), New Mexico (S3), Oregon (S2), Texas (S2), Utah (S3), Washington (S3), Wyoming (S3)
Canada British Columbia (S3S4)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: SC (14Jul2005)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Special Concern (28Nov2014)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for Designation: This distinctly patterned bat is found in the dry intermontane grasslands of southern British Columbia.  A cliff-roosting bat, its patchy distribution and specialized roosting needs suggest a relatively small population size.  The main threats to foraging habitat in valley bottoms or roosting locations are urban development, land conversion for orchards and vineyards, roads, mining and exploration, recreational activities (e.g., rock climbing), and light and noise pollution. This bat may be susceptible to White-nose Syndrome if this disease spreads west. Its specialized habitat requirements and slow reproductive rate will affect recovery.

Status History: Designated Special Concern in April 1988. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2004 and November 2014.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range encompasses western North America from southern British Columbia (north to Fraser River basin near Williams Lake) (Cannings et al. 1999) and south-central Montana south through central and eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, Idaho, western Wyoming, western Colorado, western and southern Nevada, California (Pierson and Rainey 1998), Arizona, western and central New Mexico, and western Texas to central Mexico (Queretaro) (Verts and Carraway 1998, Luce and Keinath 2007). Distribution appears to be patchy with availability of suitable habitat (suitable roosting cliffs and water sources). Winter range is poorly known. Elevational range extends from below sea level to 3,230 meters (Luce and Keinath 2007).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of distinct occurrences has not been determined using standardized or meaningful criteria, but this species is represented by a fairly large number of observation sites and locations (as defined by IUCN). 

Population Size: 2500 - 100,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but undoubtedly exceeds 2,500 and presumably exceeds 10,000. Formerly this species was thought to be exceptionally rare. It tends to fly high and so is infrequently captured in mist nets, and roost sites generally are dispersed and often not easily accessible. Surveys using modern acoustic methods have shown it to be more widespread and numerous but still relatively uncommon (e.g., Fenton et al. 1987).

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known. Roosting habitat is extensive, remote, and mostly not vulnerable to destruction or excessive disturbance. Potential foraging areas are extensive (Navo et al. 1992, Storz 1995, Priday and Luce 1999) and generally not subject to extensive loss.

Several factors may affect local populations, though the range-wide scope of these threats generally is negligible. Construction of dams that inundate high cliffs and canyon walls may remove some habitat (Snow 1974). Overgrazing of meadows or expansion of invasive plant species might potentially reduce the local food base of these bats (Pierson and Rainey 1998). Timber harvest might benefit the bats by increasing the area of foraging habitat (Schmidt 2003). Disturbance in the form of intensive rock climbing is a potential threat (Pierson and Rainey 1998). Large-scale, non-target pesticide spraying could have adverse effects through secondary poisoning of bats and reduction of their prey base (Hayes and Wiles 2013). Wind turbines have the potential to cause direct mortality and could pose a threat to small local populations (Hayes and Wiles 2013). As of 2012, white-nose syndrome had not been detected in this species.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but distribution and abundance probably have been relatively stable.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Long-term Trend Comments: Long-term trend is uncertain, but distribution and abundance likely have not changed very much compared to the historical situation.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Additional information is needed on distribution and abundance in many parts of the range.

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range encompasses western North America from southern British Columbia (north to Fraser River basin near Williams Lake) (Cannings et al. 1999) and south-central Montana south through central and eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, Idaho, western Wyoming, western Colorado, western and southern Nevada, California (Pierson and Rainey 1998), Arizona, western and central New Mexico, and western Texas to central Mexico (Queretaro) (Verts and Carraway 1998, Luce and Keinath 2007). Distribution appears to be patchy with availability of suitable habitat (suitable roosting cliffs and water sources). Winter range is poorly known. Elevational range extends from below sea level to 3,230 meters (Luce and Keinath 2007).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NN, NV, OR, TX, UT, WA, WY
Canada BC

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Apache (04001), Coconino (04005), Mohave (04015), Yavapai (04025), Yuma (04027)*
CA Fresno (06019), Inyo (06027), Kern (06029), Los Angeles (06037), Madera (06039)*, Mariposa (06043), Mono (06051), Riverside (06065)*, San Bernardino (06071)*, San Diego (06073)*, Shasta (06089), Sierra (06091), Siskiyou (06093), Tehama (06103), Tulare (06107), Tuolumne (06109)
CO Garfield (08045)*, Moffat (08081), Montrose (08085)
ID Canyon (16027), Cassia (16031), Custer (16037), Jerome (16053), Nez Perce (16069), Oneida (16071), Owyhee (16073), Power (16077), Twin Falls (16083), Valley (16085)
MT Big Horn (30003), Carbon (30009), Cascade (30013), Lewis and Clark (30049), Yellowstone (30111)
NM Bernalillo (35001)*, Catron (35003)*, Cibola (35006), Grant (35017)*, Otero (35035), Rio Arriba (35039)*, Sandoval (35043), Socorro (35053)
NV Clark (32003), Esmeralda (32009), Humboldt (32013)*, Lincoln (32017)*, Nye (32023), Washoe (32031)*, White Pine (32033)
OR Deschutes (41017), Gilliam (41021), Grant (41023), Harney (41025)*, Jefferson (41031), Lake (41037), Malheur (41045), Morrow (41049), Sherman (41055), Wallowa (41063)*, Wasco (41065), Wheeler (41069)
TX Brewster (48043)
UT Beaver (49001), Duchesne (49013), Garfield (49017), Grand (49019), Iron (49021), Kane (49025), Salt Lake (49035)*, San Juan (49037), Uintah (49047), Utah (49049)*, Washington (49053), Wayne (49055)
WA Benton (53005)+, Douglas (53017)+, Grant (53025)+, Kittitas (53037)+, Lincoln (53043)+, Okanogan (53047)+, Pend Oreille (53051)+
WY Big Horn (56003), Park (56029), Sweetwater (56037), Washakie (56043)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Upper Missouri (10030101)+, Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102)+, Smith (10030103)+, Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin (10070004)+*, Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar (10070007)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Lower Bighorn (10080015)+
13 Rio Chama (13020102)+*, Jemez (13020202)+, Rio Grande-Albuquerque (13020203)+*, Rio San Jose (13020207)+, Jornada Del Muerto (13020210)+, Elephant Butte Reservoir (13020211)+, Big Bend (13040205)+, Tularosa Valley (13050003)+, Salt Basin (13050004)+, Rio Penasco (13060010)+
14 Colorado headwaters (14010001)+*, Upper Gunnison (14020002)+, Upper Dolores (14030002)+, Upper Colorado-Kane Springs (14030005)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+*, Lower Yampa (14050002)+, Lower Green-Diamond (14060001)+, Ashley-Brush (14060002)+, Duchesne (14060003)+, Upper Lake Powell (14070001)+, Muddy (14070002)+, Fremont (14070003)+, Lower Lake Powell (14070006)+, Paria (14070007)+*, Lower San Juan-Four Corners (14080201)+, Montezuma (14080203)+*
15 Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon (15010001)+, Grand Canyon (15010002)+, Kanab (15010003)+, Havasu Canyon (15010004)+, Lake Mead (15010005)+, Hualapai Wash (15010007)+, Upper Virgin (15010008)+*, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, Lower Virgin (15010010)+*, Muddy (15010012)+, Meadow Valley Wash (15010013)+*, Las Vegas Wash (15010015)+*, Yuma Desert (15030108)+*, Big Sandy (15030201)+, Upper Gila (15040001)+*, San Francisco (15040004)+*, Black (15060101)+, Big Chino-Williamson Valley (15060201)+, Lower Gila (15070201)+*
16 Lower Bear-Malad (16010204)+, Utah Lake (16020201)+*, Spanish Fork (16020202)+*, Provo (16020203)+*, Jordan (16020204)+*, Hamlin-Snake Valleys (16020301)+, Curlew Valley (16020309)+, Upper Sevier (16030001)+, East Fork Sevier (16030002)+*, Escalante Desert (16030006)+, Beaver Bottoms-Upper Beaver (16030007)+, Thousand-Virgin (16040205)+*, Truckee (16050102)+*, Spring-Steptoe Valleys (16060008)+, Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys (16060010)+, Ralston-Stone Cabin Valleys (16060011)+, Cactus-Sarcobatus Flats (16060013)+
17 Pend Oreille (17010216), Okanogan (17020006), Similkameen (17020007), Methow (17020008), Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010), Moses Coulee (17020012), Upper Crab (17020013), Banks Lake (17020014), Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids (17020016), Upper Yakima (17030001), Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Raft (17040210)+, Goose (17040211)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Salmon Falls (17040213)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, Middle Owyhee (17050107)+, Lower Owyhee (17050110)+, Brownlee Reservoir (17050201)+*, Hells Canyon (17060101)+*, Imnaha (17060102)+*, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+*, Palouse (17060108), Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Lower Middle Fork Salmon (17060206)+, Lower Salmon (17060209)+, Upper John Day (17070201)+, North Fork John Day (17070202)+, Lower John Day (17070204)+, Upper Deschutes (17070301)+, Lower Crooked (17070305)+, Trout (17070307)+*, Lake Abert (17120006)+, Alvord Lake (17120009)+*
18 Lower Pit (18020003)+, Sacramento headwaters (18020005)+, Middle Fork Feather (18020123)+, Cow Creek (18020151)+*, Paynes Creek-Sacramento River (18020155)+, Thomes Creek-Sacramento River (18020156)+, Upper Kern (18030001)+, Upper Kaweah (18030007)+, Upper King (18030010)+, Tulare-Buena Vista Lakes (18030012)+*, Middle San Joaquin-Lower (18040001)+*, Upper San Joaquin (18040006)+, Upper Merced (18040008)+, Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+, Upper Stanislaus (18040010)+, Santa Clara (18070102)+*, Santa Monica Bay (18070104)+, San Diego (18070304)+*, Mono Lake (18090101)+, Crowley Lake (18090102)+, Owens Lake (18090103)+, Eureka-Saline Valleys (18090201)+, Upper Amargosa (18090202)+, Indian Wells-Searles Valleys (18090205)+, Antelope-Fremont Valleys (18090206)+, Southern Mojave (18100100)+*, Whitewater River (18100201)+*, Salton Sea (18100204)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A black bat with very large ears and prominent white spots.
General Description: Huge pink ears (37-47 mm [Hall 1981] or 45-50 mm [Watkins 1977]); blackish dorsum with a large white spot on each shoulder and on the rump, and white patches at the posterior base of each ear; total length 107-115 mm; forearm 48-51 mm; 16-20 g; greatest length of skull 18.4-19.0 mm (small sample); supraorbital region of skull sharply ridged; no median sagittal crest; 34 teeth (Watkins 1977, Handley 1959, Hall 1981). The newborn young lack any indication of having the adult color pattern (van Zyll de Jong 1985). Four hours after birth, a male weighed 4 g and measured 59 mm in length; tail length was 20 mm, hind foot 11 mm, ear 12 mm, and forearm 21 mm.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from other bats in the unique patterning of the fur and the extremely large ears.
Reproduction Comments: Copulation likely occurs in late summer or fall. Births apparently occur in late May or early June in the south (Snow 1974, Watkins 1977, Schmidly 1977), mid-June to early July in the north (Watkins 1977, Nagorsen and Brigham 1993). Litter size is one. Lactating females have been netted on June 23, 30, and July 1 in New Mexico, on July 9 in New Mexico by Mike Bogan, and on August 10, 15, and 18 in Utah (Barbour and Davis 1969). Females are not known to form maternity colonies (Hayes and Wiles 2013).
Ecology Comments: Apparently relatively solitary but may hibernate in small clusters (Whitaker 1980). In British Columbia, individuals roosted solitarily during the active season; appeared to maintain exclusive foraging areas (Leonard and Fenton 1983).

Apparently this bat is a rapid flyer. Many of them are injured in the mist nets, indicating a high rate of speed at the collision (Snow 1974). In flight, the ears project forward. The only times the ears are carried erect are when the bat is alert, usually just preparatory to flight. At all other times, the ears lie along the back and are slightly curved (Barbour and Davis 1969).

Vocalizations and Echolocation

The spotted bat makes a wide variety of sounds in communicating and foraging. The voice has been described as sounding like a soft, extremely high-pitched metallic squeak; a hissing noise and a ratlike squeak; and a typical bat chirp. This bat has also been heard clicking the teeth together and making grinding noises by gnashing the teeth. Previous to taking flight, the spotted bat makes clicking or ticking notes (Snow 1974).

The echolocation call is loud and high- pitched; the fundamental frequency sweeps from 12 to 6 kHz and is a double or single steep frequency modulated pulse. The call is repeated at a rate of two to six per second. The sound pressure level is estimated at 80-90 dB at 10 cm, making it a moderate intensity. The echolocation call can clearly be heard by a human at distances of 250 m (van Zyll de Jong 1985).

The low frequency of the echolocation call is useful in both hunting and communications. Due to reduced attenuation and good propagation qualities, the call is good for long-range detection of prey and an increased range of audibility by other bats. The bat is also able to approach the moth more closely and enhance the chance of a successful pursuit due to the moth not being able to detect the low intensity of sound (van Zyll de Jong 1985). Similar calls are made by Plecotis phyllotis (Allen's big-eared bat), Tadarida macrotis (big freetail bat), and Eumops perotis (western mastiff bat) (Snow 1974).

Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Seasonal changes in distribution are poorly known. In some areas, the bats may occupy higher elevation coniferous stands in summer and migrate to lower elevations in late summer/early fall (Berna 1990, Barbour and Davis 1969, Geluso 2000).

In northern Arizona, radio-tagged individuals had home ranges that averaged 297 sq km (95 percent use, minimum convex polygon) (Chambers et al. 2011). Individuals used a mean of 1.4 roosts during 10 days.

In northern Arizona, a radio-tagged lactating female traveled 38.5 km from her day roost to forage over a higher elevation (~2,500 meters) meadow system (Rabe et al. 1998).

In British Columbia, individuals foraged up to 6-10 km from the day roost (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989).

Riverine Habitat(s): Aerial
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Cliff, Desert, Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer
Subterranean Habitat(s): Subterrestrial
Habitat Comments: This species occurs in various habitats from desert to montane coniferous stands, including open ponderosa pine, pinyon-juniper woodland, canyon bottoms, riparian and river corridors, meadows, open pasture, and hayfields. Active foraging may be mostly in open terrain, including forest clearings, meadows, and open wetlands, sometimes in open areas near buildings (see review in Schmidt 2003) or even golf courses. Roosts, including maternity roosts, generally are in cracks and crevices in cliffs (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989, Pierson and Rainey 1998, Rabe et al. 1998), sometimes in caves or in buildings near cliffs (Sherwin and Gannon 2005). Winter habits poorly known.

In British Columbia, individuals used the same roost each night May-July, but not after early August (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989). They foraged mainly in fields near pines and over marshes (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989).

In Wyoming, these bats were associated with canyons, cliffs, and nearby permanent water, in areas including xeric-shrub grassland, riparian woodland, and high-elevation conifer and aspens habitats (Priday and Luce 1999).

In northwestern Colorado, spotted bats are locally common in various habitats (pinyon-juniper woodland, riparian corridors, over river) in canyons (Navo et al. 1992).

In Garfield County, Utah, Easterla captured a spotted bat in an area that was treeless and rolling for several miles around the site and also surrounded by mountainous terrain. The predominant plant species were sagebrush and rabbitbrush. In the mountainous terrain, the predominant plant was ponderosa (yellow) pine (Snow 1974). In Utah, Snow (1974) reported that bats were captured over a waterhole near limestone cliffs with cracks.

In northern Arizona, radio-tagged individuals foraged mostly in desert scrub but also used woodlands and forests. Maternity roosts were remote and difficult to access (Chambers et al. 2011).

Many bats in New Mexico were caught over waterholes near a sandstone cliff with numerous vertical cracks.

In the Big Bend National Park in Texas, spotted bats were captured near the only water source (a permanent pool) in many square miles, in a shallow, barren, hot, dry canyon with walls of angled, buckled pink and red limestone. The predominant plant species were creosote bush, candelilla, Hechtia, agave, pricklypear, and ocotillo (Snow 1974).

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: The diet is dominated by moths (Noctuidae, Lasiocampidae, Geometridae) and includes a small percentage of other insects (Berna 1990, Snow 1974; Schmidly 1977, 1991; Barbour and Davis 1969; van Zyll de Jong 1985, Painter et al. 2009).

In British Columbia, spotted bats flew 5-15 meters above the ground when foraging; foraging areas of different individuals overlapped (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989). In southeastern Utah, the bats fed on small insects within 2 meters of the ground; sometimes they captured insects on the ground (Poche and Bailie 1974), though this has been disputed. In Colorado, spotted bats foraged at heights above 10 meters (Navo et al. 1992).

One study stated that the bats hunted a regular beat and searched for prey in clearings in pine forest; the bat was extremely punctual in making its rounds and reached various points along its route at the same time every night. When in the clearings, the bat followed a definite circuit at or above treetop height. The bat spent approximately three to five minutes per clearing during the spring, and much longer during the summer, retracing its circuit in the clearing. The lengthier foraging in the summer is attributed to increased prey availability during the later season (van Zyll de Jong 1985). Another study found that a predictable pattern of foraging was observed in spring to midsummer (May to July), and a less predictable pattern later in the summer. At the beginning of the summer, foraging periods were long, and they became shorter later in summer (van Zyll de Jong 1985). The contradiction in foraging strategies between the two studies was attributed to the variability of the bat's behavior in response to changes in one or more factors in the environment such a abundance and distribution of prey (Snow 1974).

Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Activity may occur year-round in the warmer portions of the range but is not known to occur in the cold season in the northern range. Foraging occurs throughout the night, from after sunset to early morning (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989, Berna 1990, Navo et al. 1992, Storz 1995, Perry et al. 1997, Rabe et al. 1998, Priday and Luce 1999).

Nearly all of 54 individuals netted in western Texas were caught after midnight (Watkins 1977). In British Columbia, the bats left their day roost an average of 49 minutes after sunset (13 minutes in radio-tagged bats, Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989), returned an average of 67 minutes before sunrise; a peak in foraging occurred at 0000-0300 hours (Leonard and Fenton 1983); emergence from day roosts was not significantly influenced by moonlight; flew continuously between departure from and return to day roost (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989). In Colorado, spotted bats were active throughout the night (Navo et al. 1992, Storz 1995).

Length: 13 centimeters
Weight: 18 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: The greatest management need is to obtain further information on current distribution and abundance, life history, ecology.
Restoration Potential: Until more is known, it is difficult to determine what can be done to increase the population of the spotted bat. It is probable that it has never been very common (Snow 1974).
Management Requirements: Not much management can be done until more ecological information is available. However, Snow (1974) recommended the following: 1) determine the presence of the spotted bat by surveying likely habitat 2) establish and maintain waterholes in likely spotted bat habitat (it is well known that the bat will fly for several miles to find water, and a water hole will benefit many species), 3) support and cooperate in studies to determine more about the impacts by humans.
Monitoring Requirements: The best capture method is to stretch a net over the only water source found within miles and in a area a few miles from trees (Barbour and Davis 1969). The spotted bat does not readily chew a net and is rather docile when handled (Snow 1974). One exception was reported by Constantine in 1961.

The spotted bat apparently does not adapt well to captivity (Barbour and Davis 1969).

Biological Research Needs: Further information is needed on threats, movements, and winter distribution.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a recurring breeding population during summer (approximately May through August). Includes detections or mist net captures away from roost sites obtained during the summer months even if the actual roost site(s) are not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation (including detection of echolocation chirps) of one or more individuals.
Mapping Guidance: Foraging areas can and should be mapped as separate polygons from roost sites if they are separated by a commuting route in which foraging bats do not feed. EOs may overlap if bats from different roosts more than 20 kilometers apart partially share a common foraging or drinking site.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Movement characteristics of these highly mobile bats (see following) would suggest separation distance of tens of kilometers. However, this would result in occurrences of unwieldy spatial scope. It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations. However, include in the same occurrence (1) any roost sites between which significant numbers of individuals are known to move, regardless of how far apart they are, and (2) known significant foraging areas of occurrences that are based on roost sites.

Individuals can travel from 6 up to 10 kilometers away from their roost site to forage (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989). This may not be always a radius in the sense that the individuals may not have a roughly circular foraging range, but even so, the foraging ranges are generally large.

Date: 01Apr2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a recurring population during the non-breeding season. Includes detections or mist net captures away from roost sites obtained even if the actual roost site(s) are not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation (including detection of echolocation chirps) of one or more individuals.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: See Location Use Class = Breeding.
Date: 01Apr2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Mar2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Management Information Edition Author: Jodie Ann Bayerl
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 27Apr2015
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Adams, R. A. 2003. Bats of the Rocky Mountain West: natural history, ecology, and conservation. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. xiii + 289 pp.

  • Ammerman, L. K., C. L. Hice, and D. J. Schmidly. 2012. Bats of Texas. Texas A & M University Press, College Station, Texas. xvi + 305 pp.

  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. Maxent-based species distribution models. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Arizona Game and Fish Department. 1993. Bats of Arizona. Arizona Wildlife Views, Special Heritage Edition. Vol. 36(8). 36 pp.

  • B.C. Ministry of Environment. 2013c. Management Plan for the Spotted Bat (Euderma maculatum) in British Columbia. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. 21 pp.

  • B.C. Ministry of Environment. Recovery Planning in BC. B.C. Minist. Environ. Victoria, BC. Available: http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/recoveryplans/rcvry1.htm

  • BEAUVAIS, G.P. 1999. VERTEBRATES OF CONSERVATION CONCERN ON THE PITCHFORK RANCH. Unpublished report for the Pitchfork Ranch by WYNDD-University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • Balcombe, J. P. 1988d. Status report on the Spotted Bat Euderma maculatum in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 12 pp.

  • Barbour, R. W., and W. H. Davis. 1969. Bats of America. The University of Kentucky Press, Lexington, Kentucky. 286 pp.

  • Berna, H. J. 1990. Seven bat species from the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, with a new record of Euderma maculatum. Southwest. Nat. 35:354-356.

  • Bighorn National Forest. 1996. Endangered and Sensitive animal species of the Bighorn National Forest. Unpublished draft report on file at Bighorn NF Supervisor's Office, Sheridan, Wyoming.

  • Blood, D.A. 1993. Spotted Bat. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Wildl. Branch. 6 pp.

  • Bogdanowicz, W., S. Kasper, and R. D. Owen. 1998. Phylogeny of plecotine bats: reevaluation of morphological and chromosomal data. Journal of Mammalogy 79:78-90.

  • Bradley, R.D., L.K. Ammerman, R.J. Baker, L.C. Bradley, J.A. Cook. R.C. Dowler, C. Jones, D.J. Schmidly, F.B. Stangl Jr., R.A. Van den Bussche and B. Würsig. 2014. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2014. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 327:1-28. Available at: <http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/opapers/ops/OP327.pdf> (Accessed April 1, 2015)

  • British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. 2004. Spotted Bat in Accounts and measures for managing identified wildlife. British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, BC. 52pp.

  • COSEWIC. 2004e. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the spotted bat Euderma maculatum in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vii + 26 pp.

  • Cannings, S. G., L. R. Ramsay, D. F. Fraser, and M. A. Fraker. 1999. Rare amphibians, reptiles, and mammals of British Columbia. Wildlife Branch and Resources Inventory Branch, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, B.C. 198 pp.

  • Chambers, C. L., M. J. Herder, K. Yasuda, D. G. Mikesic, S. M. Dewhurst, W. M. Masters, and D. Vleck. 2011. Roosts and home ranges of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in northen Arizona. Canadian Journal of Zoology 89:1256-1267.

  • Clark, T.W., A.H. Harvey, R.D. Dorn, D.L. Genter, and C. Groves, eds. 1989. Rare, sensitive and threatened species of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative, Montana Natural Heritage Program, The Nature Conservancy, and Mountian West Environmental Services.

  • Clark, Tim W. and Mark R. Stromberg. 1987. Mammals in Wyoming. University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, Kansas.

  • Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 1999. Canadian Species at Risk: April 1999. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 17 pp.

  • Easterla, D.A. 1965. The spotted bat in Utah. Journal of Mammology 46(4):665-668.

  • Esterla, D.A. 1973. Ecology of the 18 species of Chiroptera at Big Bend National Park, Texas. Northwest Missouri State Univ. Stud. 43:1-165.

  • Fenton, M. B., D. C. Tennant, and J. Wyszeck. 1987. Using echolocation calls to measure distribution of bats: the case of Euderma maculatum. Journal of Mammalogy 68:142-144.

  • Fenton, M. B., D. C. Tennant, and J. Wyszeck. 1987. Using echolocation calls to measure distribution of bats: the case of Euderma maculatum. Journal of Mammalogy 68:142-144.

  • Fenton, M.B., D.C. Tennant, and J. Wyszecki. No date. Survey Report.

  • Findley, J.S. and C. Jones. 1965. Comments on spotted bats. Journal of Mammalogy 46(4):679-680.

  • Finley, R.B., Jr., and J. Creasy. 1982. First specimen of the spotted bat (EUDERMA MACULATUM) form Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist 42: 360.

  • Frost, D. R., and R. M. Timm. 1992. Phylogeny of plecotine bats (Chiroptera: "Vespertilionidae"): proposal of a logically consistent taxonomy. Am. Mus. Novitates 3034:1-16.

  • Garber, C.S. 1991. A survey for Townsend's big-eared bat (PLECOTUS TOWNSENDII) and the spotted bat (EUDERMA MACULATUM) on the Bridger-Teton and Targhee National Forests in Wyoming. Unpublished report prepared by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database in a cooperative cost-share project with the Bridger-Teton and Targhee National Forests.

  • Garcia, P.F.J., S.A. Rasheed, and S.L. Hoylroyd. 1995. Status of the Spotted Bat in British Columbia. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Wildl. Branch. Working Rep. WR-75. 32pp.

  • Geluso, K. 2000. Distribution of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in Nevada, including notes on reproduction. Southwestern Naturalist 45: 347-352.

  • Geluso, K. 2000. Distribution of the spotted bat (Euderma Maculatum) in Nevada, including notes on reproductionl. The Southwestern Naturalist, 45(3): 347-352.

  • Gitzen, R. A., S. D. West, and J. A. Baumgardt. 2001. A record of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) from Crescent Bar, Washington. Northwestern Naturalist 82:28-30.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Handley, C. O., Jr. 1959. A revision of American bats of the genera Euderma and Plecotus. Proceedings U.S. National Museum 110:95-246.

  • Hayes, G., and G. J. Wiles. 2013. Washington bat conservation plan. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, Washington. viii + 138 pp.

  • Hoffmeister, D. F. 1986. Mammals of Arizona. University of Arizona Press and Arizona Game and Fish Department. 602 pp.

  • Holroyd, S.L., R.M.R. Barclay, L.M. Merk, and R.M. Brigham. 1994. A Survey of the Bat Fauna of the Dry Interior of British Columbia. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Wildl. Branch. Working Rep. WR-63. 80pp.

  • Hoofer, S. R., and R. A. Van Den Bussche. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of plecotine bats and allies based on mitochondrial ribosomal sequences. Journal of Mammalogy 82:131-137.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Leonard, M. L., and M. B. Fenton. 1983. Habitat use by spotted bats (Euderma maculatum, Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): roosting and foraging behavior. Can. J. Zool. 61:1487-1491.

  • Long, C.A. 1965. The mammals of Wyoming. Univ. of Kansas, Publ. Museum of Natural History 14: 493-758.

  • Luce, R. L., and D. Keinath. 2007. Spotted bat (Euderma maculatum): a technical conservation assessment. Report to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Golden, Colorado.. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/spottedbat.pdf

  • Luce, R.J. and D. Keinath. 2007. Spotted Bat (Euderma maculatum): a technical conservation assessment. [Online]. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region.

  • Luce, R.J., Bogan, M.A., O'Farrell, M.J. and D.A. Keinath. 2004. Species assessment for Spotted Bat (Euderma maculatum) in Wyoming. Report prepared for USDI Wyoming Bureau of Land Management by Robert Luce, US Geological Survey, O'Farrell Biological Consulting and Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, Wyoming.

  • Mammalian Species, nos. 1-604. Published by the American Society of Mammalogists.

  • Memorandum of Understanding. MT dept. of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and the MT Dept. of State Lands, Abandoned Mine Reclamation Bureau (DSL). Draft. Jan. 1, 1991.

  • Merrill, E.H., T.W. Kohley, and M.E. Herdendorf. 1996. Wyoming Gap Analysis terrestrial vertebrate species map atlas. Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Unit, University of Wyoming, Laramie WY. 982 pp. in 2 volumes.

  • Mickey, A.B. 1960. Record of the spotted bat from Wyoming. Journal of Mammalogy 42(3):401-402

  • Mills, S. and M. Neighbours. 1995. Intensive data gathering project (fine-filter analysis) for occurrences of rare, threatened, endangered and sensitive species in sections M331H and M331I, north central highlands and northern parks and ranges, in Wyoming. Unpublished report prepared for Medicine Bow National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 294 pp.

  • Nagorsen, D. 1990. The mammals of British Columbia: a taxonomic catalogue. Mem. No. 4. Royal B.C. Mus., Victoria. 140pp.

  • Nagorsen, D. 1998. Mammals. in B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Resour. Inventory Branch. 1998. The Vertebrates of British Columbia: Scientific and English Names. Standards for Components of British Columbia's Biodiversity, No. 2. Version. 2.0. Resour. Inventory Comm. Victoria, BC. 119pp.

  • Nagorsen, D. W., and R. M. Brigham. 1993. Bats of British Columbia. Vol. I. The Mammals of British Columbia. UBC Press, Vancouver, 164 pp.

  • Nagorsen, D.W., and R.M. Brigham. 1993. The bats of British Columbia. Royal B.C. Mus. Handb. Victoria, BC. 164pp.

  • Navo, K. W., J. A. Gore, and G. T. Skiba. 1992. Observations on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum, in northwestern Colorado. Journal of Mammalogy 73:547-551.

  • O'Farrell, M.J. 1991. Status Report: Euderma Maculatum. Office of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, N.M. 29pp.

  • Oakleaf B., A. Cerovski, and B. Luce. 1997. Interim Completion Report -Sensitive Species Inventory. Wyoming Game & Fish Department, Lander, WY. 31pp.

  • Painter, M. L., C. L. Chambers, M. Siders, R. R. Doucett, J. O. Whitaker, Jr., and D. L. Phillips. 2009. Diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in Arizona as indicated by fecal analysis and stable isotopes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 87:865-875.

  • Perry, T. W., P. M. Cryan, S. R. Davenport, and M. A. Bogan. 1997. New locality for Euderma maculatum (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 42:99-101.

  • Pierson, E. D., and W. E. Rainey. 1998a. Distribution of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum, in California. Journal of Mammalogy 79:1296-1305.

  • Poche, R. M., and G. L. Bailie. 1974. Notes on the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) from southwest Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 34:254-256.

  • Priday, J. and B. Luce. 1999. New distributional records for spotted bat (EUDERMA MACULATUM) in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist 59(1):97-101.

  • Priday, J., and B. Luce. 1999. New distributional records for spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist 59:97-101.

  • Qumsiyeh, M. B., and J. W. Bickham. 1993. Chromosomes and relationships of long-eared bats of the genera Plecotus and Otonycteris. Journal of Mammalogy 74:376-382.

  • Rabe, M.J., M.S. Siders, C.R. Miller, and T.K. Snow. 1998. Long foraging distance for a spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in northern Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist, 43(2): 266-286.

  • Rabe, M.J., M.S. Siders, C.R. Miller, and T.K. Snow. 1998b. Long foraging distance for a spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in northern Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist 43(2): 266-286.

  • Ruffner, G.A., R.M. Poche, M. Meierkord, J.A. Neal. 1979. Winter bat activity over a desert wash in southwestern Utah. Southwestern Naturalist 24(3):447-453.

  • Schmidly, D. J. 1977. The mammals of Trans-Pecos Texas including Big Bend National Park and Guadalupe Mountains National Park. Texas A & M University Press, College Station.

  • Schmidly, D. J. 1991. The bats of Texas. Texas A & M University Press, College Station, Texas. 188 pp.

  • Schmidt, C. A. 2003a. Conservation assessment for the spotted bat relative to the Black Hills National Forest South Dakota and Wyoming. USDS Forest Service, Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota.

  • Sherwin, R. E., and W. L. Gannon. 2005. Documentation of an urban winter roost of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum). Southwestern Naturalist 50:402-407.

  • Skinner, S. 1990. Bats. Wyoming Wildlife 54(9):17-25.

  • Snow, C. 1974. Habitat Management Services for Endangered Species: Report No. 4, Spotted Bat Euderma maculatum. Bureau of Land Management.

  • Snow, C. 1974. Spotted Bat. Habitat Management Series for Endangered Species, Report No. 4. Bureau of Land Management. 13pp.

  • Snow, T. K., et al. 1996. Spotted Bat Survey of the North Kaibab Ranger District (Coconino County, Arizona). Arizona Game and Fish Department.

  • Spahr, R., L. Armstrong, D. Atwood, and M. Rath. 1991. Threatened, endangered, and sensitive species of the Intermountain Region. U.S. Forest Service, Ogden, Utah.

  • Stevens, V., and S. Lofts. 1988. Species Notes for Mammals. Vol. 1 in A.P. Harcombe, tech. ed. Wildlife Habitat Handbooks for the Southern Interior Ecoprovince. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Wildl. Branch. Tech. Rep. R-15. 174pp.

  • Storz, J. F. 1995. Local distribution and foraging behavior of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in northwestern Colorado and adjacent Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 55:78-83.

  • Toone, R.A. 1992. General inventory for spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) on the Abajo mountains, Monticello R.D., Manti-LaSal National Forest, Utah. Utah Natural Heritage Program, Utah Dept. of Natural Resources. 19pp.

  • Tumlison, R., and M. E. Douglas. 1992. Parsimony analysis and the phylogeny of the plecotine bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Journal of Mammalogy 73(2):276-285.

  • Verts, B. J., and L. N. Carraway. 1998. Land mammals of Oregon. University of California Press, Berkeley. xvi + 668 pp.

  • WESTEC Service, Inc. 1981. 810400. Status Report submitted to the Office of Endangered Species.

  • Wai-Ping, V. and M. B. Fenton. 1989. Ecology of spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) roosting and foraging. Journal of Mammalogy 70:617-622.

  • Watkins, L.C. 1977. Euderma maculatum. Mammalian Species, 77:1-4.

  • Watkins, L.C. 1977. EUDERMA MACULATUM. Mammalian Species, 77:1-4.

  • Welp, L., W. Fertig, and G. Jones. 1998. Ecological evaluation of the potential Tensleep Canyon Research Natural Area within the Bighorn National Forest, Washakie County, Wyoming. Unpublished report prepared for the Bighorn National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Whitaker, J. O., Jr. 1980. The Audubon Society field guide to North American mammals. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 745 pp.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at: http://vertebrates.si.edu/msw/mswcfapp/msw/index.cfm

  • Wilson, D. E., and S. Ruff. 1999. The Smithsonian book of North American mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 750 pp.

  • Woodsworth, G.C., Bell, G.P., and Fenton, M.B. 1981. Observations of the echolocation, feeding behavior, and habitat use of Euderma maculatum (Chiroptera: vespertilionidae) in southcentral British Columbia. Canadian Zoologist 59:1099-1102.

  • Woodsworth, G.C., G.P. Bell, and M.B. Fenton. 1981. Observations of the echolocation, feeding behaviour and habitat use of Euderma maculatum (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in southcentral British Columbia. Can. J. Zool. 59:1099-1102.

  • Worthington, D.J. 1991. Abundance and distribution of bats in the Pryor Mountains of south central Montana and north eastern Wyoming. Unpublished report, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula.

  • Wyoming Game and Fish Department. 1996. Nongame Bird and Mammal Plan, a plan for inventories and management of nongame birds and mammals in Wyoming. Prepared by B. Oakleaf, A.O. Cerovski, and B. Luce, Nongame Program Biological Services Section, Wyoming Game and Fish Dept. 183 pp.

  • van Zyll de Jong, C.G. 1985. Handbook of Canadian Mammals. Vol. II, Bats. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Canada. 212 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.