Euchloe olympia - (W.H. Edwards, 1871)
Olympia Marble
Other English Common Names: Olympia marble
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Euchloe olympia (W. H. Edwards, 1871) (TSN 777763)
French Common Names: olympe
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.110821
Element Code: IILEPA5040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Pieridae Euchloe
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B02OPL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Euchloe olympia
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 13Sep2015
Global Status Last Changed: 13Sep2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Very local and threatened in parts of eastern range, but secure northward and westward, probably even increasing in some northern areas. If they were treated separately the Appalachian populations would be at least globally uncommon if not imperiled.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4N5 (30Sep1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (23Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (S2), Colorado (S4S5), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S2), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S4), Kentucky (S3), Maryland (S2), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (S4?), Missouri (S4?), Montana (S4), Nebraska (S4), New York (S1), North Carolina (S1), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S3S4), Pennsylvania (SH), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (S2), Texas (SNR), Virginia (S2), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S4), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada Alberta (S2S3), Manitoba (S1S2), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Widespread in western North America between the Rockies and the Mississippi and into the Great Lakes region from southern Canada into Texas. The Appalachian population cluster, which itself has discontinuities, is very disjunct from others and occurs mostly on shale slopes and barrens from extreme southern Pennsylvania through parts of western Maryland and mainly northeastern West Virginia and adjacent Virginia into Kentucky; also a few occurrences in.

Number of Occurrences: > 300

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: This species is not threatened overall, but it has been substantially impacted in Appalachia by gypsy moth spraying, a threat that may continue and could eradicate the species from some areas. This threat could expand into other regions. Available data suggest butterflies as a whole are highly sensitive to Btk, and most Lepidoptera definitely are in first and second instars (Peacock et al., 1998). Exposure of these instars would be high, up to the entire larval cohort for the year, during typical gypsy moth suppression applications. Diflubenzuron would, if anything, be more lethal to larvae and might also have some impact on other stages.

Short-term Trend: Increase of >10%
Short-term Trend Comments: This species has recently expanded its range in Great Lakes regions of Ontario and western New York.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Widespread in western North America between the Rockies and the Mississippi and into the Great Lakes region from southern Canada into Texas. The Appalachian population cluster, which itself has discontinuities, is very disjunct from others and occurs mostly on shale slopes and barrens from extreme southern Pennsylvania through parts of western Maryland and mainly northeastern West Virginia and adjacent Virginia into Kentucky; also a few occurrences in.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, CO, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MD, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NY, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Allamakee (19005), Buena Vista (19021), Fremont (19071)*, Harrison (19085), Lyon (19119), Monona (19133), Plymouth (19149), Pocahontas (19151), Winneshiek (19191), Woodbury (19193)
IN Jasper (18073), Lake (18089), Newton (18111), Porter (18127)
MD Allegany (24001), Garrett (24023), Washington (24043)
NC Madison (37115), Swain (37173)
NY Jefferson (36045)
PA Bedford (42009)*
VA Frederick (51069)*, Giles (51071)*, Lee (51105), Russell (51167), Shenandoah (51171)
WV Grant (54023), Hampshire (54027), Hardy (54031), Kanawha (54039)*, Mineral (54057), Pendleton (54071)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+*, North Fork Shenandoah (02070006)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+*
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, Chaumont-Perch (04150102)+
05 Middle New (05050002)+*, Upper Kanawha (05050006)+*
06 Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Tuckasegee (06010203)+, Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+
07 Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, North Raccoon (07100006)+, Kankakee (07120001)+, Chicago (07120003)+
10 Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+, Little Sioux (10230003)+, West Nishnabotna (10240002)+*, Nishnabotna (10240004)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: a butterfly
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous, Sand/dune, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Inhabits open woods, barrens, very dry meadows in eastern part of range and open grasslands to the west. Typically found in habitats that appear semi-arid with well-drained soils (Opler and Krisek, 1984). Appalachian populations are restricted to shale barrens and openings and right of ways on sunny wooded shale slopes and crests. Great Lakes region and southeastern Canadian populations are in dry meadows and open sandy woodlands on old dunes and in alvars.
Adult Food Habits: Nectarivore
Food Comments: Caterpillar Hosts: Various rockcresses (Arabis species) in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Adult Food: Flowers of rockcresses, chickweed, phlox, and Houstonia (Lotts and Naberhaus 2017).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Better information on the potential threat posed by Btk spraying is needed, to a lesser extent better information regarding Diflubenzuron impacts is needed. Also it would be very useful to know if some pupae overwinter more than once before hatching, which would greatly reduce the chance that a single incident of gypsy moth spraying would eradicate a population.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Pieridae, General

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A location where the species occurs, or recently has occurred, where there is potential for continued occurrence or regular recurrence. Minimally a place with a verified collection or photograph or in exceptional cases a sight record from an expert in association with larval foodplants in suitable habitat. Verification standards may vary by species and location, for example there is only one species of Anthocaris in the entire east so sight records would be more reasonable to accept there than in some western regions.
Mapping Guidance: Usually, but not always habitat boundaries are discernable based on vegetation type or structure, but in some cases they will be defined more by distribution of the larval foodplant. Include adjacent nectaring areas as habitat. Consult the habitat and food comments fields for species-specific information on what constitutes suitable habitat when mapping occurrences.
Separation Barriers: Very little information. At least some species such as patrolling male COLIAS routinely recognize and stay within habitat boundaries, but during other circumstances they readily leave them and at least some open country species very readily fly over forests and through or over cities, for example COLIAS PHILODICE, C. EURYTHEME, PIERIS RAPAE, P. PROTODICE.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 4 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: When dealing with multiple occurrences within the same large scale natural community such as COLIAS INTERIOR in openings in a large barrens complex, consider the occurrence a metapopulation and apply the suitable habitat distance. Also both distances may be lowered in very cold environments where sustained flight is almost always impossible except in highly sheltered warm microclimates. However do this very conservatively for suitable habitat distance since.
Separation Justification: These are strong flying dispersive to migratory species that easily travel several km per hour at least during warm sunny weather. Recall a meter per second, about right for the slowest species is 3.6 km per hour. While the species no doubt vary in their dispersive or colonial tendencies these figures seem reasonable in the absence of actual data. Both figures are arbitrary.

For woodland or forest species use the ten kilometer distance when assessing multiple "colonies" on wooded ridges, or in large canyons etc. As with most Lepidoptera all contiguous suitable habitat is likely to be occupied to some degree so there is little chance two collections only ten kilometers apart across largely suitable habitat would really be separate occurrences.

For species that routinely move along and into forest patches or through a dominant landscape feature that often has foodplants use the suitable habitat distance for marginal habitats. Likewise for feature adults like to follow such as forest edges for Anthocharis midea or edges, railroads and sand roads for some Eurema.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: In practice most occurrences will occupy a few hundred hectares or less and in such cases the inferred extent is simply all available habitat. Exceptions are most likely to occur among woodland species such as ANTHOCARIS for which foodplants are scattered more sparsely or patchily over large areas forcing at least females to move around a lot to find them. Use the 1 kilometer figure only with extensive habitat or proximate patches along a feature such as a ridgeline. As with most butterflies populations will usually occupy most of the potential habitat at least during good weather or favorable years. Beware though that in cold conditions at least Colias and presumably others concentrate in low, sheltered, sunny spots and appear more sedentary than they really are. Even the highly dispersive and somewhat migratory COLIAS EURYTHEME becomes intensely localized and sedentary in southern New Jersey from about mid November through February when sun angle is too low for the butterflies to reach optimum flight temperature even on warm days. Arctic and alpine species are also most active and dispersive on warm sunny days. It is unlikely that 1 kilometer will prove realistic except in arctic and alpine situations, for now there are insufficient observations to justify a larger figure.
Date: 14Sep2001
Author: Schweitzer, Dale F.
Notes: Boreal forest or woodland PIERIS of the NAPI complex are included for now but may need different SPECS. The two which are reasonably well known are P. OLERACEA for which these SPECS should be suitable and P. VIRGINIENSIS which needs and has its own SPECS.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Nov2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Schweitzer, Dale F. and Opler, Paul A.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Aug1995

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Allen, T. J. 1997. The butterflies of West Virginia and their caterpillars. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 388 pages, color photographs.

  • Allen, Thomas, 1998. Butterflies of West Virginia and Their Caterpillars. University of Pittsburgh Press.

  • Belth, Jeffrey E. 2013. Butterflies of Indiana A Field Guide. Indiana University Press.Bloomington, IN.

  • Bess, James. 2005. A Report on the Remnant-Dependent Insects of the Coastal Zone Natural Area Remnants in Northwest Indiana. 23 pp..

  • COVELL, C.V., JR. 1999. THE BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA) OF KENTUCKY: AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST. KENTUCKY STATE NATURE PRESERVES COMMISSION SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES 6:1-220.

  • Clench, H.K. and P.A. Opler. 1983. Studies on Nearctic Euchloe. Part 8: Distribution, Ecology, and Variation of Euchloe olympia (Pieridae) Populations. Annals of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) 52: 41-54.

  • Covell, C. V., Jr. 1999. The butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) of Kentucky: An annotated checklist. Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series Number 6, Frankfort, Kentucky. 220 pp.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba butterfly species list and subnational ranks proposed by Environment Canada contractor.

  • Genoways, H.H., and F.J. Brenner. 1985. Species of Special Concern in Pennsylvania. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 429 pp.

  • Holmes, A.M., Q.F. Hess, R.R. Tasker and A.J. Hanks. 1991. The Ontario Butterfly Atlas. Toronto Entomologists' Association, Toronto, Ontario. viii + 167 pp.

  • Huber, R. L. 1981. An updated checklist of Minnesota butterflies. Minnesota Entomological Association Newsletter 14(3):15-25.

  • KEAN, P.J. 1979. THE 1977 FIELD TRIP OF THE MARYLAND ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. MARYLAND ENTOMOLOGIST 1(3):1-4.

  • Klassen,P.,Westwood, A.R., Preston. W.B. and W.B. McKillop. 1989. The butterflies of Manitoba. Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature. Winnipeg. 290 pp.

  • Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall, and J.D. LaFontaine. 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, Canada. 280 pp. + color plates.

  • Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall, and J.D. Lafontaine. 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario. 280 pp.

  • Lotts, K., and T. Naberhaus, coordinators. 2017. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Available online: http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ (Version December 2018).

  • Natural Resources Commission. 2014. Roster of Indiana Animals, Insects, and Plants That Are Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Rare. Information Bulletin #2 (Sixth Amendment. 20pp.

  • Opler, P. A., and A. B. Wright. 1999. A field guide to western butterflies. Second edition. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 540 pp.

  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Opler, P.A. and F. Dirrigl, Jr. 1995. Element Global Ranking Form as of 20 Oct. 1997 - Euchloe olympia. Unpublished, updated on 95-09-27. 2 pp.

  • Opler, P.A. and G.O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies East of the Great Plains, an illustrated natural history. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore. 294pp.

  • Opler, P.A. and V. Malikul. 1992. Eastern Butterflies (Peterson Field Guide). Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 396 pp. + color plates.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.

  • Pohl, G.R.  J-F. Landry, B.C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.van Nieukerken, J.R. deWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated checklist of the moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. 580 pp.

  • Riotte, J.C.E. 1992. Annotated List of Ontario Lepidoptera. Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publications, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. 208 pp.

  • SMITH, R.H. 1987. BUTTERFLIES OF INTEREST TO THE MARYLAND NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM. 1986 REPORT. 5 PP.

  • Shuey, John. 1995. Indiana S-Ranks for Butterflies. Memorandum to Cloyce Hedge. 10 pp.

  • Shull, Ernest M. 1987. The Butterflies of Indiana. Publ. by Indiana Acad. Science, distributed by Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington/Indianapolis, 262 pp.

  • Wagner, W.H. 1977. A distinctive dune form of the Marbled White Butterfly, Euchloe olympia (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in the Great Lakes area. The Great Lakes Entomologist 10(3): 107-112.

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