Etheostoma zonale - (Cope, 1868)
Banded Darter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Etheostoma zonale (Cope, 1868) (TSN 168449)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106576
Element Code: AFCQC02870
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
Image 178

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Etheostoma
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Etheostoma zonale
Taxonomic Comments: E. lynceum, formerly included in E. zonale, was regarded as specifically distinct by Etnier and Starnes (1986); the 1991 AFS checklist also regarded lynceum as a separate species (Robins et al. 1991). Apparently hybridizes with E. olmstedi in Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania (Raesly et al. 1990).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 26Jan2012
Global Status Last Changed: 24Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (S4), Georgia (S3), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (S4S5), Maryland (SNA), Michigan (S1), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (SNR), New York (S3), North Carolina (S3), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S5), Pennsylvania (S5), South Carolina (S1?), Tennessee (S5), Virginia (S3), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes three disjunct regions: Lake Michigan and Mississippi River basins from northwestern Michigan to Minnesota, south to northwestern Indiana and central Illinois; Ohio River basin from southwestern New York to eastern Indiana, south to northern Georgia and northern Alabama; Ozark-Ouachita drainages of southern Missouri, southeastern Kansas, Arkansas, and eastern Oklahoma (Page and Burr 2011). Introduced in Savannah River headwaters, South Carolina, and in the Susquehanna River, New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations)

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but very large. This species is common in much of its range, locally abundant (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes three disjunct regions: Lake Michigan and Mississippi River basins from northwestern Michigan to Minnesota, south to northwestern Indiana and central Illinois; Ohio River basin from southwestern New York to eastern Indiana, south to northern Georgia and northern Alabama; Ozark-Ouachita drainages of southern Missouri, southeastern Kansas, Arkansas, and eastern Oklahoma (Page and Burr 2011). Introduced in Savannah River headwaters, South Carolina, and in the Susquehanna River, New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MDexotic, MI, MN, MO, NC, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Catoosa (13047), Fannin (13111), Towns (13281), Union (13291), Walker (13295)
IA Allamakee (19005)*, Benton (19011), Black Hawk (19013), Boone (19015)*, Bremer (19017), Buchanan (19019), Butler (19023), Chickasaw (19037)*, Clayton (19043)*, Dallas (19049)*, Delaware (19055), Dickinson (19059)*, Emmet (19063)*, Fayette (19065)*, Floyd (19067), Guthrie (19077)*, Hamilton (19079)*, Hardin (19083), Howard (19089)*, Linn (19113), Madison (19121)*, Mitchell (19131), Polk (19153)*, Story (19169)*, Webster (19187)*, Winneshiek (19191)*
KS Cherokee (20021), Lyon (20111), Wilson (20205)
MI Menominee (26109)*
NC Macon (37113), Swain (37173)
SC Oconee (45073)*, Pickens (45077)*
VA Lee (51105), Washington (51191)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Seneca (03060101)+*, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Lake Superior (04020300), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Menominee (04030108)+, Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Milwaukee (04040003)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004), Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Conemaugh (05010007), Kiskiminetas (05010008), West Fork (05020002), Cheat (05020004), Lower Monongahela (05020005), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103)*, Connoquenessing (05030105), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Mohican (05040002), Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004), Wills (05040005)*, Licking (05040006), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Rough (05110004), Tippecanoe (05120106), Vermilion (05120109), Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Obey (05130105), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Stones (05130203), Harpeth (05130204), Red (05130206), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104)
06 North Fork Holston (06010101)+, South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+, Tuckasegee (06010203), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Powell (06010206)+, Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+, Ocoee (06020003)+, Sequatchie (06020004), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 Redwood (07020006), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+*, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)*, Turkey (07060004)+*, Maquoketa (07060006)+, Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, South Skunk (07080105)+*, Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Shell Rock (07080202)+, West Fork Cedar (07080204)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+*, Upper Iowa (07080207)+, Middle Iowa (07080208)+*, Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007), Upper Des Moines (07100002)+*, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+*, Boone (07100005)+*, North Raccoon (07100006)+*, South Raccoon (07100007)+*, Lake Red Rock (07100008)+*, Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Upper Sangamon (07130006)*, Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Whitewater (07140107)
08 Upper St. Francis (08020202), Little River Ditches (08020204), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Upper Saline (08040203), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201)*, Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Tangipahoa (08070205), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)
09 Mustinka (09020102), Otter Tail (09020103)
10 Little Sioux (10230003)+*, Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), Buffalo (11010005), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Little Red (11010014), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102)+, Neosho headwaters (11070201)+, Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207)+, Elk (11070208), Lower Neosho (11070209), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns April-May in Oklahoma and Kansas, mid-April to late May in Missouri, May-June in Illinois and Pennsylvania, as late as late July in western Kentucky, late March to mid-June in Arkansas (Hubbs 1985, Walters 1994). In Arkansas, water temperatures during spawning were 11-21 C (Walters 1994). Sexually mature usually in 2 years in north (Page 1983). Known age range of breeding females is 2-3 years (Bart and Page 1992).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes rocky riffles of creeks and small to medium rivers (Page and Burr 2011); streams of moderate gradient with bottoms of coarse gravel to rubble, often at depths over 25 cm at or near midchannel. In Arkansas, spawning occurred in runs about 0.6-1.6 meters deep with moderate current velocities (Walters 1994). Trautman (1981) reported spawning at depths of less than 0.6 meters. Eggs are laid on algae and moss growing on stones and boulders in riffles or runs (Becker 1983, Walters 1994).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Major foods are fly and midge larvae and mayfly naiads (Page 1983).
Phenology Comments: Feeding activity peaks at midday (Page 1983).
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Jan2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26Jan2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Adamson, S.W. and T.E. Wissing. 1977. Food habits and feeding periodicity of the rainbow, fantail, and banded darters in Four Mile Creek. Ohio Journal of Science 77(4):164-169.

  • Bart, H. L., Jr., and L. M. Page. 1992. The influence of size and phylogeny on life history variation in North American percids. Pages 553-572 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1986. Etheostoma lynceum removed from the synonymy of E. zonale (Pisces, Percidae). Copeia 1986:832-836.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Greenberg, L.A. 1982. First record of the banded darter in the New York part of the Susquehanna River drainage. New York Fish and Game J. 29(2):215-216.

  • Hubbs, C. 1985. Darter reproductive seasons. Copeia 1985:56-68.

  • Huffaker, Steve. 1971. Upper West Fork of the Whitewater River Stream Survey Report; Wayne, Randolph, Rush, Henry, Fayette Counties. Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife. 28 pp.

  • Kuehne, R. A., and R. W. Barbour. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. 177 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nemecek, R. J. 1980. The comparative ecology of three species of darters in the genus Etheostoma: E. variatum, E. caeruleum, E. zonale in the Allegheny River drainage of western New York. Ph.D. Thesis, St. Bonaventure University 175 pp.

  • Nemecek, R.J. 1980. The comparative ecology of three species of darters in the genus Etheostoma: E. variatum (Kirtland), E. caeruleum (Storer) and E. zonale (Cope) in the Allegheny River drainage of western New York. Ph.D. thesis. St. Bonaventure University.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • PLATT, D.R. 1974. VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SAND PRAIRIE NATURAL HISTORY RESERVATION, HARVEY COUNTY, KANSAS. TRANS. KANSAS ACAD. SCI. 76(1): 51-73.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Raesly, R. L., J. R. Stauffer, Jr., and R. F. Denoncourt. 1990. Hybridization between Etheostoma zonale and Etheostoma olmstedi (Teleostei: Percidae), following an introduction event. Copeia 1990:584-588.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Tsai, C. and E.C. Raney. 1974. Systematics of the banded darter, Etheostoma zonale (Pisces: Percidae). Copeia 1974(1):1-24.

  • Walters, J. P. 1994. Spawning behavior of Etheostoma zonale (Pisces: Percidae). Copeia 1994:818-821.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Page, L. M. 1983a. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 271 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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