Etheostoma pyrrhogaster - Bailey and Etnier, 1988
Firebelly Darter
Other English Common Names: Lowland Snubnose Darter, Red Snubnose Darter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Etheostoma pyrrhogaster Bailey and Etnier, 1988 (TSN 168459)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106104
Element Code: AFCQC02990
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Etheostoma
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B04NEL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Etheostoma pyrrhogaster
Taxonomic Comments: Etheostoma cervus, described as a new species by Powers and Mayden (2003), formerly was included in this species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 30Dec2011
Global Status Last Changed: 24Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Small range in Obion River system, western Tennessee and southwestern Kentucky; uncommon; rechanneling of streams has had an adverse impact; additional habitat degradation could lead to situation wherein federal listing as Threatened would be warranted.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Kentucky (S1), Tennessee (S2)

Other Statuses

American Fisheries Society Status: Vulnerable (01Aug2008)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 250-1000 square km (about 100-400 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the Obion River system, Mississippi River basin, in northwestern Tennessee and a small area of adjacent southwestern Kentucky (Powers and Mayden 2003, Page and Burr 2011).

Area of Occupancy: 11-100 1-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Area of occupancy is unknown but probably does not exceed 100 square kilometers.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Powers and Mayden (2003) mapped 9 collection sites in about 8 different streams.

Population Size: Unknown
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown. This species is regarded as uncommon (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Rechanneling of streams has had an adverse impact; additional habitat degradation could lead to a situation wherein federal listing as Threatened would be warranted (Bailey and Etnier 1988). Warren et al. (2000) rated E. pyrrhogaster (before the recognition of E. cervus as a distinct species) as "vulnerable." After the taxonomic split, Jelks et al. (2008) still rated this species as "vulnerable".

Powers and Mayden (2003) concluded that "it does not appear that either species [pyrrhogaster and cervus] warrants a more imperiled conservation status." They stated that the species is susceptible to extinction if extensive habitat alterations take place throughout large portions of the range, but noted that this darter is now fairly well protected by its presence in multiple headwater streams (Powers and Mayden 2003).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (250-1000 square km (about 100-400 square miles)) Range includes the Obion River system, Mississippi River basin, in northwestern Tennessee and a small area of adjacent southwestern Kentucky (Powers and Mayden 2003, Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States KY, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KY Graves (21083)
TN Benton (47005), Carroll (47017), Chester (47023), Decatur (47039), Henderson (47077), Henry (47079), Madison (47113), McNairy (47109), Weakley (47183)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
06 Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001)+, Kentucky Lake (06040005)+
08 Obion (08010202)+, South Fork Obion (08010203)+, North Fork Forked Deer (08010204)+, South Fork Forked Deer (08010205)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small fish (darter).
Reproduction Comments: Spawns probably in April or May (Bailey and Etnier 1988). Age range of breeding females is 1-2 years (Bart and Page 1992).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes sand- and gravel-bottomed pools of headwaters, creeks, and small rivers (Page and Burr 2011). This darter is most common in swifter currents with fine gravel substrate, also in pools adjacent to such habitats; it also has been taken in shelter and swifter current downstream from buried snags and beaver dams (Bailey and Etnier 1988). Eggs are attached probably to submerged logs and snags (Bailey and Etnier 1988).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 30Dec2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • BAILEY, R. M., D. A. ETNIER. 1988. COMMENTS ON THE SUBGENERA OF DARTERS (PERCIDAE) WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF ETHEOSTOMA ... MISC. PUBL. MUS. ZOOL., UNIV. MICHIGAN, NO. 175.

  • Bailey, R. M., and D. A. Etnier. 1988. Comments on the subgenera of darters (Percidae) with descriptions of two new species of Etheostoma (Ulocentra) from southeastern United States. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Miscellaneous Publications (175):1-48.

  • Bart, H. L., Jr., and L. M. Page. 1992. The influence of size and phylogeny on life history variation in North American percids. Pages 553-572 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Carney, D. A., and B. M. Burr. 1989. Life histories of the bandfin darter, Etheostoma zonistium, and the firebelly darter, Etheostoma pyrrhogaster, in western Kentucky. Illinois Natural History Survey, Biological Notes 134. December 1989.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Powers, S. L., and R. L. Mayden. 2003. Etheostoma cervus: a new species from the Forked Deer River system in western Tennessee with comparison to Etheostoma pyrrhogaster (Percidae: subgenus Ulocentra). Copeia 2003:576-582.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr., B. M. Burr, S. J. Walsh, H. L. Bart, Jr., R. C. Cashner, D. A. Etnier, B. J. Freeman, B. R. Kuhajda, R. L. Mayden, H. W. Robison, S. T. Ross, and W. C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-31.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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