Etheostoma nigrum - Rafinesque, 1820
Johnny Darter
Synonym(s): Etheostoma nigrum nigrum
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Etheostoma nigrum nigrum Rafinesque, 1820 (TSN 650200) ;Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque, 1820 (TSN 168369)
French Common Names: raseux-de-terre noir
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100152
Element Code: AFCQC02490
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
Image 184

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Etheostoma
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B04NEL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Etheostoma nigrum
Taxonomic Comments: Etheostoma susanae formerly was regarded as a subspecies of E. nigrum; mtDNA data support recognition of the two as distinct species (Strange 1998).

E. nigrum formerly included E. olmstedi as a subspecies (Lee et al. 1980). See Chapleau and Pageau (1985) for relationship between nigrum and olmstedi in Canada.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 23Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (13Apr2006)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (22Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S3), Colorado (S4), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S3), Kentucky (S4S5), Maryland (S3), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S3), New York (S4), North Carolina (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S3), Pennsylvania (S5), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Utah (SNA), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S4)
Canada Manitoba (S5), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins, from Hudson Bay to southern Mississippi and from Quebec and Virginia to Saskatchewan and Colorado; Atlantic Slope in James, Roanoke, Tar, and Neuse river drainages, Virginia and North Carolina; Gulf Slope in Mobile Bay drainage, Alabama and Mississippi; introduced in Colorado River drainage, Colorado (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Population size is very large. This species is common to abundant over a large area.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins, from Hudson Bay to southern Mississippi and from Quebec and Virginia to Saskatchewan and Colorado; Atlantic Slope in James, Roanoke, Tar, and Neuse river drainages, Virginia and North Carolina; Gulf Slope in Mobile Bay drainage, Alabama and Mississippi; introduced in Colorado River drainage, Colorado (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CO, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NY, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, UTexotic, VA, WI, WV, WY
Canada MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KS Riley (20161)
KY Butler (21031), Christian (21047), Logan (21141), Muhlenberg (21177)
NE Antelope (31003), Boyd (31015), Brown (31017), Buffalo (31019)*, Burt (31021), Cass (31025), Cedar (31027), Cherry (31031), Cheyenne (31033)*, Cuming (31039), Dawson (31047), Deuel (31049)*, Dixon (31051), Dodge (31053), Douglas (31055), Dundy (31057)*, Franklin (31061), Gage (31067)*, Garfield (31071), Hall (31079), Hamilton (31081)*, Holt (31089), Jefferson (31095), Johnson (31097), Kearney (31099)*, Keya Paha (31103)*, Knox (31107), Logan (31113)*, Madison (31119), Morrill (31123)*, Nemaha (31127), Otoe (31131), Pawnee (31133), Pierce (31139), Richardson (31147), Sarpy (31153), Saunders (31155), Scotts Bluff (31157), Stanton (31167)*, Washington (31177), Webster (31181), Wheeler (31183)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Ausable (02010004), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006), Upper James (02080201), Maury (02080202), Middle James-Buffalo (02080203), Rivanna (02080204), Middle James-Willis (02080205), Appomattox (02080207)
03 Upper Roanoke (03010101), Middle Roanoke (03010102), Upper Dan (03010103), Lower Dan (03010104), Banister (03010105), Roanoke Rapids (03010106), Nottoway (03010201), Meheriin (03010204), Upper Tar (03020101), Fishing (03020102), Upper Neuse (03020201), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Town (03160102), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202)
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101), Beaver-Lester (04010102), St. Louis (04010201), Cloquet (04010202), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Ontonagon (04020102), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Sturgeon (04020104), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Betsy-Chocolay (04020201), Tahquamenon (04020202), Waiska (04020203), Lake Superior (04020300), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Michigamme (04030107), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Escanaba (04030110), Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Kalamazoo (04050003), Upper Grand (04050004), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Thornapple (04050007), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Manistique (04060106), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), Lake Michigan (04060200), St. Marys (04070001), Carp-Pine (04070002), Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Cheboygan (04070004), Black (04070005), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Sable (04070007), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Birch-Willow (04080104), Tittabawassee (04080201), Pine (04080202), Shiawassee (04080203), Flint (04080204), Cass (04080205), Saginaw (04080206), Lake Huron (04080300), St. Clair (04090001), Lake St. Clair (04090002), Clinton (04090003), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006), Auglaize (04100007), Blanchard (04100008), Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002), Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Cattaraugus (04120102), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001), Upper Genesee (04130002), Lower Genesee (04130003), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101), Salmon-Sandy (04140102), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Oswego (04140203), Chaumont-Perch (04150102), Oswegatchie (04150302), Indian (04150303), Grass (04150304), Raquette (04150305), St. Regis (04150306), English-Salmon (04150307)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004), Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Conemaugh (05010007), Kiskiminetas (05010008), Lower Allegheny (05010009), Tygart Valley (05020001), West Fork (05020002), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Cheat (05020004), Lower Monongahela (05020005), Youghiogheny (05020006), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103)*, Beaver (05030104), Connoquenessing (05030105), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001), Mohican (05040002), Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004), Wills (05040005)*, Licking (05040006), Upper New (05050001), Lower New (05050004), Gauley (05050005), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002), Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003)+, Rough (05110004), Pond (05110006), Upper Wabash (05120101), Salamonie (05120102), Mississinewa (05120103), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115), Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Patoka (05120209), Rockcastle (05130102), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Saline (05140204), Tradewater (05140205)+
06 Upper Clinch (06010205), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Leech Lake (07010102), Prairie-Willow (07010103), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Pine (07010105), Crow Wing (07010106), Redeye (07010107), Long Prairie (07010108), Platte-Spunk (07010201), Sauk (07010202), Clearwater-Elk (07010203), Crow (07010204), South Fork Crow (07010205), Twin Cities (07010206), Rum (07010207), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Pomme De Terre (07020002), Lac Qui Parle (07020003), Redwood (07020006), Cottonwood (07020008), Blue Earth (07020009), Watonwan (07020010), Le Sueur (07020011), Lower Minnesota (07020012), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Kettle (07030003), Snake (07030004), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007), Des Moines Headwaters (07100001), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Chicago (07120003), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006), South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202), Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)
08 Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202)*, Yocona (08030203), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206)*, Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Upper Saline (08040203), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Homochitto (08060205)
09 Lower Souris (09010003), Otter Tail (09020103), Buffalo (09020106), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Eastern Wild Rice (09020108), Goose (09020109), Middle Sheyenne (09020203), Lower Sheyenne (09020204), Sandhill-Wilson (09020301), Red Lakes (09020302), Red Lake (09020303), Clearwater (09020305), Turtle (09020307), Forest (09020308), Park (09020310), Lower Red (09020311), Two Rivers (09020312), Pembina (09020313), Roseau (09020314), Rainy Headwaters (09030001), Rainy Lake (09030003), Upper Rainy (09030004), Little Fork (09030005), Big Fork (09030006), Lower Rainy (09030008), Lake of the Woods (09030009)
10 Upper Lake Oahe (10130102), Lower Lake Oahe (10130105), Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101), Ponca (10150001)+, Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Keya Paha (10150006)+*, Lower Niobrara (10150007)+, James Headwaters (10160001), Pipestem (10160002), Upper James (10160003), Elm (10160004), Middle James (10160006), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Vermillion (10170102), Middle Big Sioux Coteau (10170201), Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Upper North Platte (10180002), Medicine Bow (10180004), Glendo Reservoir (10180008), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Lower Laramie (10180011), Horse (10180012), Upper South Platte (10190002), Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003), St. Vrain (10190005), Big Thompson (10190006), Cache La Poudre (10190007), Lone Tree-Owl (10190008), Crow (10190009), Kiowa (10190010)*, Beaver (10190013)*, Upper Lodgepole (10190015), Lower Lodgepole (10190016)+, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101)+, Wood (10200102)+*, Lower Platte (10200202)+, Salt (10200203)+, South Loup (10210004)+*, Lower North Loup (10210007)+, Loup (10210009)+, Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, North Fork Elkhorn (10220002)+, Lower Elkhorn (10220003)+, Logan (10220004)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+, Floyd (10230002), Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004), Maple (10230005), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, Boyer (10230007), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, East Nishnabotna (10240003)*, Little Nemaha (10240006)+, South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007)+, Big Nemaha (10240008)+*, Independence-Sugar (10240011)*, One Hundred and Two (10240013)*, North Fork Republican (10250002)+*, Lower Sappa (10250011)*, Middle Republican (10250016)+, Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Upper Saline (10260009)*, Upper North Fork Solomon (10260011)*, Solomon (10260015)*, Upper Kansas (10270101)+, Middle Kansas (10270102), Lower Kansas (10270104), Middle Big Blue (10270202)+*, West Fork Big Blue (10270203)+*, Turkey (10270204), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Lower Little Blue (10270207)+, Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202), Little Chariton (10280203), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201)*, Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Eleven Point (11010011)*, Strawberry (11010012), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Spring (11070207), Elk (11070208), Lower Canadian (11090204), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Poteau (11110105), Cadron (11110205), Kiamichi (11140105), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109)
17 Upper Willamette (17090003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns April-June over most of range, but spawning peaks July to early August in Colorado (Propst and Carlson 1989); spawns mid-March to mid-May at southern limit of range in Mississippi (Parrish et al. 1991). Male guards eggs, which in Michigan hatch in 16 days in April, 10 days in May, and 6 days in June. Several females may contribute to egg mass of each male. Sexually mature in 1 year (Page 1983). In Colorado, few survived past age III (Propst and Carlson 1989).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Considerable upstream and downstream movements may precede spawning (Kuehne and Barbour 1983).
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This darter is most often found over sand or silt in quiet or sluggish areas of headwaters, creeks, and small to medium rivers (Leidy 1992, Page and Burr 1991), less often over gravel or in weedy areas of lakes or sandy lake shallows (Page 1983); sometimes in pools over bedrock (Kuehne and Barbour 1983). In Colorado, it occurs most often in shallow, slow-velocity water over cobble-sand substrate (Propst and Carlson 1989). Eggs are laid on the underside of a stone or other object.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Young eat mainly midge larvae and microcrustaceans. Larger individuals eat mainly midge larvae and mayfly larvae (Page 1983, Propst and Carlson 1989).
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Dec2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Atz, James W. 1940. Reproductive behavior in the eastern johnny darter, Boleosoma nigrum olmstedi (Storer). Copeia (2):100-106.

  • Bandoli, James H. 1998. Status and Distribution of Darters in Southwestern Indiana, with Special Emphasis on the Spottail Darter, an Indiana Endangered Species. Submitted to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program. 22 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Chapleau, F., and G. Pageau. 1985. Morphological differentiation of Etheostoma olmstedi and E. nigrum (Pisces: Percidae) in Canada. Copeia 1985:855-865.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Ellis, M. M. 1914. Fishes of Colorado. University of Colorado Studies, Boulder. Vol. XI. 136 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Fisheries Branch. 1991. Fish Species Distributions in Saskatchewan. Report 91-7. Saskatchewan Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch. Regina. 102pp.

  • General Status, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba fish species and subnational ranks proposed by DFO.

  • George, C.J. 1980. The fishes of the Adirondack Park. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Albany, NY 94 pp.

  • Hatch, J. T. 1985/86. Distribution, habitat, and status of the Gilt Darter (Percina evides) in Minnesota. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science 51(2):11-16

  • Hatch, J. T. 1986. Comparative growth, reproduction, habitat and food utilization of darters of the St. Croix River drainage. Final report submitted to Nongame Wildlife Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 39+ pp.

  • Hatch, J. T. 1986. Comparative growth, reproduction, habitat and food utilization of darters of the St. Croix River drainage. Final report submitted to Nongame Wildlife Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 39+ pp.

  • Huffaker, Steve. 1971. Upper West Fork of the Whitewater River Stream Survey Report; Wayne, Randolph, Rush, Henry, Fayette Counties. Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife. 28 pp.

  • Kuehne, R. A., and R. W. Barbour. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. 177 pp.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Leidy, R. A. 1992. Microhabitat selection by the johnny darter, Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque, in a Wyoming stream. Great Basin Naturalist 52:68-74.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Parrish, J. D., D. C. Heins, and J. A. Baker. 1991. Reproductive season, clutch parameters and oocyte size of the johnny darter Etheostoma nigrum from southwestern Misssissippi. American Midland Naturalist 126:180-186.

  • Propst, D. L. 1982. Warmwater fishes of the Platte River Basin, Colorado; distribution, ecology, and community dynamics. Ph.D. dissertation. Colorado State University. 283pp.

  • Propst, D. L., and C. A. Carlson. 1989. Life history notes and distribution of the johnny darter, Etheostoma nigrum (Percidae), in Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist 34:250-259.

  • Propst, D.L. and C.A. Carlson. 1989. Life history notes and distribution of the johnny darter Etheostoma nigrum (Percidae), in Colorado. The Southwestern Nat. 34:250-259.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Bull. 84. 966pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smart, H.J. and J.H. Gee. 1979. Coexistence and resource partitioning in two species of darters (Percidae), Etheostoma nigrum and Percina maculata. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57:2061-2071.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Starnes, W. C. 1995. Taxonomic validation for fish species on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Category 2 species list. 28 pp.

  • Strange, R. M. 1998. Mitochondrial DNA variation in johnny darters (Pisces: Percidae) from eastern Kentucky supports stream capture for the origin of Upper Cumberland River fishes. American Midland Naturalist 140:96-102.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

  • Woodling, J. 1985. Colorado's Little Fish: A Guide to the Minnows and Other Lesser Known Fishes in the State of Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Owen, J. B., D. S. Elsen and G. W. Russell. 1981. Distribution of fishes in North and South Dakota basins affected by the Garrison Diversion Unit. University of North Dakota Press, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 211 pp.

  • Page, L. M. 1983a. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 271 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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