Etheostoma lemniscatum - Blanton, 2008
Tuxedo Darter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.831401
Element Code: AFCQC02F20
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Etheostoma
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Blanton, R. E., and R. E. Jenkins. 2008. Three new darter species of the Etheostoma percnurum species complex (Percidae, subgenus Catonotus) from the Tennessee and Cumberland river drainages. Zootaxa 1963:1-24.
Concept Reference Code: A08BLA01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Etheostoma lemniscatum
Taxonomic Comments: Etheostoma lemniscatum, E. marmorpinnum, and E. sitikuense formerly were included in E. percnurum; these were described as distinct species by Blanton and Jenkins (2008).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Dec2011
Global Status Last Changed: 31Aug2009
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Very small range in one river in Kentucky and Tennessee; population size in the hundreds; threats include sedimentation and other pollutants from mining
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (31Aug2009)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Kentucky (S1), Tennessee (S1)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE
Comments on USESA: On April 27, 1993, the Duskytail darter (Etheostoma percnurum sensu lato) was designated as Endangered in the entire range, except in the Tellico River, between the backwaters of the Tellico Reservoir and the Tellico Ranger Station, in Monroe County, Tennessee, where the species is listed as a nonessential experimental population. The 5-year Review (USFWS 2012) notes that "three new morphologically diagnosable species have been described from the duskytail darter species complex (Blanton and Jenkins 2008), resulting in a total of 4 species (percnurum, lemniscatum, marmopinnum, sitikuense)" and recommended that all be considered for listing.

The USFWS, in cooperation with the State of Tennessee and Conservation Fisheries, Inc., announced a final rule to reintroduce this species into its historical habitat in the free-flowing reach of the French Broad River below Douglas Dam to its confluence with the Holston River, Knox County Tennessee, and in the free-flowing reach of the Holston River below Cherokee Dam to its confluence with the French Broad River (Federal Register, 12 September 2007). The proposed rule for this action was published on June 13, 2006.

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast
IUCN Red List Category: VU - Vulnerable
American Fisheries Society Status: Endangered (01Aug2008)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: <100 square km (less than about 40 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range is limited to the Big South Fork Cumberland River, with most individuals observed from the mouth of Station Camp Creek, Scott County, Tennessee, to Bear Creek, McCreary County, Kentucky (Eisenhour and Burr 2000).

Area of Occupancy: 11-20 1-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Range encompasses an approximately 19-km mainstem stretch of the Big South Fork Cumberland River (Eisenhour and Burr 2000).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a single occurrence (subpopulation) (Blanton and Jenkins 2008).

Population Size: 250 - 1000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Estimated population size in the entire occupied 19-kilometer reach is 300-600 individuals (Eisenhour and Burr 2000).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: None to very few (0-3)

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include sedimentation and other pollutants from mining (Blanton and Jenkins 2008). The extremely limited distribution and the species' known sensitivity to habitat disturbances indicate that a single event that negatively impacts the population could lead to its extinction (Blanton and Jenkins 2008).

Short-term Trend: Unknown

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (<100 square km (less than about 40 square miles)) Range is limited to the Big South Fork Cumberland River, with most individuals observed from the mouth of Station Camp Creek, Scott County, Tennessee, to Bear Creek, McCreary County, Kentucky (Eisenhour and Burr 2000).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States KY, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KY McCreary (21147)
TN Scott (47151)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: See Eisenhour and Burr (2000).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes gravel, rubble, and slabrock pools and runs of medium-sized rivers (Page and Burr 2011). The occupied segment of the river is approximately 30-50 meters wide and flows through a deep gorge; it has long, deep pools with large boulders and bedrock substrates, fast, well-defined riffles with cobble, boulders, and gravel, and is completely forested along the mainstem (Eisenhour and Burr 2000). Eisenhour and Burr (2000) found this darter in silt-free pools or runs with low flow, immediately above riffles where there were cobbles, boulders, and slabrocks. Davis and Cook (2010) found that probability of tuxedo darter presence at a site increased with available cobble substrate and shallow pool habitat; preferred summer microhabitat included depths between 20 and 80 cm, velocities less than 0.1 meters/second, and cover rocks with surface areas between 200 and 1,400 square centimeters.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Blanton and Jenkins (2008) provided the following protection, management, and monitoring recommendations: The small range and small population size indicate the need for federal protection and regular monitoring of habitat and population status. A recovery plan that incorporates these objectives and is designed to alleviate impacts from mining practices is greatly needed. Propagation efforts to bolster numbers may be beneficial to the long-term survival of the species, but translocation outside of the known native range is not recommended.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Dec2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Blanton, Rebecca E. and Robert E. Jenkins, 2008. Three new darter species of the Etheostoma percnurum species complex (Percidae, subgenus Catonotus) from the Tennessee and Cumberland river drainages. Zootaxa 1963: 1-24.

  • Burkhead, N. M., and R. E. Jenkins. 1991. Fishes. Pages 321-409 in K. Terwilliger (coordinator). Virginia's Endangered Species: Proceedings of a Symposium. McDonald and Woodward Publishing Company, Blacksburg, Virginia.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Davis, J. G., and S. B. Cook. 2010. Habitat use of the tuxedo darter (Etheostoma lemniscatum) at macrohabitat and microhabitat spatial scales. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 25:321-330.

  • Eisenhour, D. J., and B. M. Burr. 2000. Conservation status and nesting biology of the endangered duskytail darter, Etheostoma percnurum, in the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River, Kentucky. Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science 61:67-76.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • Jenkins, R. E. 1974. Account of duskytail darter. 2 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Layman, S. R. 1984. The duskytail darter, Etheostoma (Catonotus) sp., confirmed as an egg-clusterer. Copeia 1984:992-994.

  • Layman, S. R. 1991. Life history of the relict, duskytail darter, Etheostoma (Catonotus) sp., in Little River, Tennessee. Copeia 1991:471-85.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Determination of endangered status for the duskytail darter, paleozone shiner and pygmy madtom. Federal Register 58(79):25758-25763.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Duskytail darter recovery plan. Atlanta, Georgia. 25 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Technical/agency draft recovery plan for duskytail darter (Etheostoma (Catanotus) sp.). Southeast Region, Atlanta, Georgia. 32 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2001. Proposed establishment of nonessential experimental population status for 4 fishes into the Tellico River, from the backwaters of Tellico Reservoir upstream to Tellico River Mile 33, in Monroe County, Tennessee. Federal Register 66:30853-30860.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2012. Duskytail Darter (Etheostoma percnurum) 5-year review: summary and evaluation. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Tennessee Ecological Services Field Office, Southeast Region, Cookeville, Tennessee. 25 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Blanton, R. E., and R. E. Jenkins. 2008. Three new darter species of the Etheostoma percnurum species complex (Percidae, subgenus Catonotus) from the Tennessee and Cumberland river drainages. Zootaxa 1963:1-24.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996c. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia: Export of freshwater fish and mussel records from the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1997. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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